Networking, in general, refers to the creation of network. Network is a group of devices linked to one another. For example, network of telephones, or radio network or cable network etc. So networking makes sharing of information and resources easier. In the same way, if we interconnect computers, it will form a networks of computers.
Need for Networking
The need for networking lies mainly to break the barriers of distance, time and cost. This is because the communication via computers can be done to any distance in very short amount of time and in very cost effective manner. In fact, communicating via computers proves cheaper and much economical as compared to communicating via telephone lines. This is because a normal telephone call ties up an expensive, dedicated circuit for the duration of the call, whereas access via a network ties up long distance lives only while data are actually being transmitted.
Data in any form, be it in the form of a text, picture, sound, video, graphics etc can be transmitted via computer networks; on the other hand, the telephone lines are mainly used for sound and sometimes text transmission through a fax machine. Thus, it can be summarized in these lines, the networking is needed because —
(i) It breaks that barriers of distance, cost and time,
(ii) It is very cost effective as compared to telephone networks,
(iii) All types of data viz. text, audio, video, pictures, graphics etc. can be transmitted
Now we have learnt about importance of networks, let us now learn more about them i.e. what all components make a network etc. So, Let us proceed on to our next section, which deals with the same.
Components of Network
Before we start discussing the components of a computer network, Let us first visualize two persons talking to each another. Components in this network:
2. Communication channel (air)
When two persons talk to each other, one speaks and the other listens. The one who is speaking, is the sender of information, and the one, who is listening, is the receiver of the information. And one more thing, have you ever wondered that how does the voice originating from sender’s mouth reach the ears of receiver? That is because, the air
present there carries the sound from sender to to receiver. Therefore, the communication channel is air.
Thus, we see that when two persons are talking to each other 3 components playing their roles
(i) The Sender,
(ii) Communication Channel-the air,
(iii) The Receiver.
Components of a Computer Network
Now you can understand the components of a computer network easily as they are similar to the one’s mentioned above. Since a network refers to interlined devices, a computer network means interlinked computers. Computers can be interlinked computers. Computers can be interlinked directly also with the help of cables. In such a network, there would be three components playing their roles (on the similar lines as in figure)
(i) The Sender-Computer
(ii) The Communication-Channel
(iii) The Receiver-Computer
Computers can also be connected via telephone so that telephone lines can work as communication channel for them. When computers are connected via telephones, an additional equipment called modem is used. This is because the data signal generated by computers (digital signal) is in a form which is different from the signal form that can be carried by telephone lines (analog signal). The modem converts the computer generated signal (digital signal) into a form that can be carried by telephone cables (analog signal). On the receiver’s end, the modem first converts the received signal into computer’s understandable form and then passes to the computer.
fact file – Communication-Channel is the medium , which carries the message / information / sound etc. sent by the sender , and takes it to received and
In a network, there are five components playing their roles:
2. Sender equipment-modem
3. Communication channel-telephone line
4. Receiver equipment-modem
By communication channels of network, it is meant that the connecting cables are being talked about The cable that connect two or more workstations are the communication channels
Modem is a device attached to computer that can convert digital signals to analog signal and vice-versa. Digital signal is a group of discrete electronic unit that is transmitted in rapid succession, and an Analog signal consists of continuous electronically waves. Modem is short name for modulator + Demodulator where modulator converts digital signals to analog signal and Demodulator does the opposite. Modem is a device that enables computers, facsimile machines and other equipments to communicate with each other across telephone lines or over cable television network cables. In the most strict sense, a modem is a device that converts analog signals, such as sound waves, and digital signals which are used by computers. Since telephone cables can carry analog signals, the computer generated digital signal is first converted into analog form, so that it can be carried by telephone lines. Upon receiving it, the modem at receiver end reconverts it into digital form so that receiver computer can understand it.
Real facts – modem ,at sender s; end gets data in digital from and converts them into analog from so that telephone cables can carry them at receiving end ,it converts back the received analog data into digital from
fact file – modem is device attached to computer that can convert digital signals to analog signals and vice versa
LAN (Local Area Network)
In LANs many different types of media are in use. Copper conductors in the form of twisted pair or coaxial are by far the most common. More recently, very serious consideration has been given to the use of optical fiber technology in LANs. Other media e.g. microwave transmission, infrared, telephone lines etc. are also used.
Types of Network
A computer network means a group of networked computer i.e. computers that are linked by means of a communication system. A network can mean a small group of linked computer to a chain of a few hundred computers of different types (e.g. PCS, minis, mainframes etc.) spread around the world. Thus, networks vary in size , complexity and geographical spread. Mostly, computers are classified on the basis of geographical spread and on this basis, there can be three types of networks:
(i) Local Area network (LAN)
(ii) Metropolitan Area network (MAN)
(iii) Wide Area Network (WAN)
Local Area Network (LAN)
A LAN is a computer network that covers a relatively small area, Most LAN’s are confined to a single building or a group of building LAN users can share data, information, program, printer, hard disks, modems etc.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Metropolitan Area Networks are the networks spread over a city. For example, cable TV network spread over a city can be termed as metropolitan area network. The purpose of a MAN is also the sharing of hardware and software resources among its users.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
The network spread across countries are known as WAN. A wide Area Network (WAN) is a group of computers that are separated by large distances and tied together. It can even be a group of LAN that are spread across several locality and connected together to look like one big LAN. The WAN links computers to facilitate fast and efficient exchange of information at lesser costs and higher speeds.
Introduction of Internet
Internet is a computer based world wide information network. It can be assumed as an example of WAN (Wide area network). The Internet is composed of a large number of smaller interconnected networks. These networks may link tens, hundreds or thousands of computers, enabling them to share information with one another and to share various resources, such as powerful supercomputers and databases (collection of data) of information. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to work effectively and communicate easily with one another. Unlike traditional
broadcasting medium such as radio and television, the Internet is a decentralized system Each connected individual can communicate with anyone else on the Internet, can publish ideas and can sell products with a minimum overhead cost. The Internet has brought new opportunity for business to offer goods and services online.
» A Network can have three to five components in general. In a directly connected network, there are three components-sender, communication channel and the receiver.
» Communication channel is the medium which carries the message/information/ sound etc. sent by the sender and takes it to the receiver’s end. In case of computer network, it can be a cable, radio wave, microwave or even satellite.
» Modem (Modulator-Demodulator) is a device attached to computer that converts digital signal to analog form at the sender’s end and does the opposite i.e. analog signal to digital at the receiver’s end.
» There can be three types of networks—(i) LAN (ii) WAN (iii) MAN.
» Internet is a computer based world wide information network. It is composed of a large number of smaller interconnected networks. It is very cost effective.
question & Answer
Computers connected to a network are called
Computers connected to a network are called node
What is the name of the file in which information about a company is filled on the Internet?
A file on the Internet in which information about a company is filled. of that company. website is called.
Which has higher speed of data communication between local area network and wide area network?
The speed of data communication is higher in the local area network as compared to the wide area network.
What is computer network?
By computer network, we mean that group of computers scattered nearby or far away, in which each computer can communicate freely with another computer to exchange information or messages and use each other’s means and facilities. could share.
In which two things is a local area network better than a wide area network?
Local area network is better than wide area network in two things, one, it has very high speed of data communication and two, it has very low (almost negligible) cost of communication.
What is a web site? How is he recognized?
A web site is a facility in which any person, organization, company etc. can fill any type of information about himself and broadcast it on the Internet. Companies can place their advertisements in it and unemployed person can also search for jobs by filling his/her resume. It is very cheap to advertise in it. A web site is identified by its domain name. For example, the website name of gkinupsc.com. In fact, this is also the address of this website.
What is Star Network?
All computers and devices in a star network are connected to a large central computer, called a host computer or server, which controls and regulates the communication of data between them. . Each node in such a network can exchange information to any other point only through the host computer. The working of this network obviously depends on the central computer and the network is rarely affected by the failure of any connected equipment or cable. Extending such a network is also simple.
What is internet? OR Define internet.
The Internet is the largest and most popular computer network in the world. Almost all the networks in the world are connected to the Internet. Thus it is also a network of networks. At present, more than 100 million people of the world are taking advantage of its services. The Internet has brought a worldwide revolution in information technology by connecting the numerous networks of different countries together. Connecting to any computer around the world or a website loaded with it is as simple as dialing a telephone number. This is the secret of the worldwide popularity of the Internet.
What is e-mail? How is it sent?
Or write a comment on the e-mail.
OR Describe the features and utilities of e-mail.
This is the name of the electronic mail facility. Through this we can send and receive any information or message electronically. It is a very cheap method of communication. To use the e-mail facility, we have to create our e-mail account on a company’s mail server. On opening the account, we are given an address for it. Anyone can then send us an e-mail based on that address, which is stored in our mail box. We can read our e-mail anytime by looking at our mail box. Similarly, we can also send e-mails to any person’s e-mail address.
What is computer network?
A network is a group of more than one point, object or person, which are interconnected in such a way that each of them can make a direct connection with the other. Each network has a definite purpose. In a computer network, nearby or distant computers are connected in such a way that each of those computers can communicate independently with another computer and exchange information or messages and communicate with each other. share resources and facilities.
What are the benefits of computer networking?
Following are the advantages of computer networking.
1. Resource Sharing We can use the means connected to any computer in the network while working on other computers in the network. For example, if a computer has a laser printer attached to it, any content can be printed to that printer from other computers on the network. This saves on the cost of hardware.
2. Speedy Transmission of Data Networking of computers allows the exchange of information between two computers in a fast and secure manner. This speeds up the work and saves time.
3. Reliability In networking, two or more copies of a file can be stored on different computers. If for any reason one computer fails or fails, that data can be retrieved from other computers. In this way the computers in the network can also act as backup for each other, which increases their reliability.
What is File Transfer Protocol? State its usefulness.
It is a program or facility in which you can copy files from any computer connected to the Internet to your computer. For this, the user has to first connect to that computer and access the information or file that he wants to use from the navigator program.
Explain search engine.
A search engine is a software system designed to search for information on the World Wide Web (www). Several results related to the searched information are usually displayed in a series (search engine results page). This information can be of any kind or both. Google and Yahoo are the two main search engines.
1 Introduce the different components of a computer network.
OR Name the main elements of computer network and describe all in brief.
A computer network is a set of many different elements or components. Some of these key ingredients are introduced below.
1. Server This is the most important or central computer of the network. All other computers on the network are connected to the server. Servers are superior to all other computers in terms of capacity and speed, and often most or all of the network’s data is kept on the server itself.
2. Node Apart from the server, all the other computers in the network are called nodes. These are the computers on which the users work. Each node has a fixed name and identity. Multiple nodes are more powerful. Such nodes are often called work stations. Nodes are also often called clients.
3.Network Cable The cables through which the computers of the network are connected together are called network cables. information from one computer to another computer on the network via cables
Just go through. These are often also called buses.
4. Network Operating System It is the software that establishes the connection between the computers of the network and controls the movement of information between them. This software is loaded into the server.
5. Network Card This is a circuit that connects network cables to computers. With the help of these cards, the movement of data is faster. These cards are installed on the motherboard of each computer connected to the network. These are also called Ethernet cards.
6.Network Topology It is a special system of interconnecting the computers of a network. Many such systems are in vogue nowadays; Like- Star, Ring, Bus etc. We can use any of these systems as per our convenience and requirement.
What are the types of computer networks? Introduce them.
Or what do you understand by LAN and WAN? Explain with example.
OR Comment briefly on LAN and WAN.
Computer networks are primarily classified according to the geographical location or physical distance of their member computers.
Are divided into the following three categories
1. LAN or Local Area Network All the computers in such networks are located in a limited area. This area should be in the range of about one kilometer; such as a large building or group of buildings. The number of devices added to a local area network may vary. These devices are connected by a communication cable.
2. MAN Or Metropolitan Area Network This size (LAN) is larger. With the help of this we can establish a network in a city. Cable TV transmission through coaxial wires in any city is an example of MAN. Setting up this network is costly as compared to LAN because the distance of computers is more according to the geographical location.
3. WAN or Wide Area Network Computers and devices connected to a wide area network can be located even at a geographical distance of thousands of kilometers from each other. Their scope may extend to several continents. It is a large data network. In this, the rate of transmission of data is less as compared to local area network. Due to the greater distance, microwave stations or communication satellites are often used in these as sending stations. Microwave networks send voice or data in the form of radio waves between two relay towers. Each tower receives and amplifies that message and forwards it.
What is the difference between Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN)?
Or compare LAN and WAN.
Or Compare the merits and demerits of LAN and WAN.
Difference between local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN)
|It operates in a limited geographical area.||Its scope of work is very wide.|
|In this, computers are often connected to each other through wires or cables.||It is not necessary to have a physical connection between the computers. In addition to telephone lines, satellite channels are also used.|
|In this, the speed of transmission of data is very fast, which can often range from 0.1 to 100 megabytes per second.||In this the speed of transmission of data is very less. Which usually ranges from 1,200 to 9,600 bits per second.|
|In this, the cost of transmitting data is very low (nearly negligible), because such a network is often of a single user group.||The cost of transmitting data in this is high, because it uses hired telephone lines or communication satellites.|
|In this, due to less physical distance between computers, the chances of mistakes in data communication are almost zero.||In this, due to the high physical distance and there is no direct physical connection, there is a high possibility of mistakes in the communication of data.|
What is network topology? Describe the different types of network topologies.
OR Write a note on network topology.
: ‘Network topology’ refers to the geographical arrangement under which different computers present in the network establish contact with each other. By topology, the path of communication between different computers is determined. In other words, the technique of making connections is called ‘network topology’. There are basically the following three types of topologies, in which the devices of the network are connected
1. Star Topology Star Topology In this type of topology, all the computers and devices are connected to a large central computer, called the host computer or server, which controls them and their Regulates the communication of data between In such a topology, each node can exchange information to any other point only through the host computer. The working of this topology clearly depends on the star topology central computer and the failure of any connected equipment or cable.
Very little is affected by topology. Extending such a topology is also simple.
2. Bus Topology Bus Topology In this type of topology, all the computers and terminals are connected through a common communication channel. There is no central computer in such topology. It has the minimum length of cables. In this, the network fails when the channel is cut, but the network is not affected much if any one computer or terminal is cut. Extending such a topology and adding more terminals is also simplified. This structure is used when installing a network in a multi-storey building.
3. Ring Topology Ring Topology This type of topology
Computers are connected in such a way that they together take the form of a closed ring or ring. There is no central computer in it. The biggest feature of this topology is that all the points or computers in it are equal. However, it can also contain a server. In such a topology, the flow of data is only in one direction and each computer forwards the data as a repeater. When the communication is complete, the sending computer receives the information that the message has arrived.
What is network protocol? What is the significance of this! What is ‘POTOCOL’? Why is it needed in networks?
Networks Protocol Network Protocol The greatest in the work of a computer network comes when we try to connect all kinds of different devices to each other. Different devices can communicate with each other only when they speak each other’s language. ‘ and ‘You can. In other words, both those devices must be using the same communication protocol. Like communication systems, networks also have certain rules or protocols for its member computers, which control the transmission of data in a networks. These rules are called networks protocols.
Networks protocols are very important. The success of a networks depends on the formulation and adherence to the standards of the networks protocols. If all the computers connected to the networks follow these rules correctly. So they can make contact with other computers connected to the networks and can take advantage of all the facilities of the networks. Conversely, if a computer does not follow the networks protocol, it cannot take advantage of the network. Apart from this, the network protocol is also helpful in connecting to other networks. If both the networks to be connected follow the same protocol, then connecting them is simple. If for some reason their protocols are different, they can still be interconnected with the help of a gateway. The construction of such a gateway requires knowledge of the complete protocols of both the networks.
What are the uses of networks? Answer Use of Networks Uses of Networks Earlier people used to say that the world has become very small by looking at the fast means of transport or transportation. At that time this may be partially true, but now with the advent of computer networks, it can be said with certainty that the world has become really small. The reason for this is that through networks today we are able to reach every corner of the world and get instant information sitting at our home. At present, the number of networks and their uses are very large in the world. Some of their uses are as follows.
(a) Electronic Mail Electronic Mail It is a system in which data is transmitted by post or messages through a communication networks or channel. In this, a letter, a reminder (memo) or whatever can be typed on a computer or terminal connected to the networks is sent to the computer of another person connected to the networks, where it is displayed on the VDU, so that the person concerned could read it. Generally, the information or message sent in this way is stored in a fixed place on the hard disk, which is called a mail box.
So that the recipient can read it whenever he wants.
(b) File Transfer File Transfer This is a facility in which we can copy or transfer the files of any computer connected to a networks to another computer connected to the same networks. This facility is very important, because data can be transferred over long distances through the networks very easily. We can also take advantage of this to back up our important files on other computers on the networks.
(c) Sharing of resources Resource sharing is also an advantage of the network that we can use all the resources and facilities connected to a computer from other computers in the network. For example, if a printer is connected to a computer on the network, we can print our documents from other computers to that printer. Apart from these, there are many small benefits like cost reduction, data security, more reliability, etc.
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