Internet – Internet in 1990 – Application of Internet – Search Engines -Electronic Mail (e-mail) Telnet

Internet 

  • Know the concept of internet 
  • Understand the various terms of internet
  • Know the working of e- mail 
  • Know the of search engine 
  • Understand the concept of chatting 

Internet in 1990

From the late 1960 to the early 1990, the Internet was a communication and research tool used almost exclusively for academic and military purpose. This changed radically with the introduction of the world wide web (www) or web in short in 1989.

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internet

The World Wide Web (www) : It is a set of programs, standards and protocols that allows the multimedia and hypertext files to be created, displayed and linked on the Internet.

Hypertext: It refers to the combination of text, graphic image, audio and video tracks and hyperlinks. A hyperlink refers to a dynamic link upon clicking at which a new web page or program opens.

Interactive : www with its page supports and enables inter activity between users a  servers through one or more of the following ways:

  • Hyperlinks
  • Input boxes e.g. radio buttons, check boxes, text boxes.

Frame : www also supports frames. Frame is the display of more than one independently controllable section on single web page.

Electronic Mail (e-mail)

electronic mail (e-mail)
electronic mail (e-mail)

The most widely used tool on the Internet is electronic mail or e-mail. E-mail is used to send written massages between individuals, often geographically separated by large distance, E-mail messages are generally sent from and received by mail servers-computers that are dedicated to processing and directing e-mail. Once a server has received a message, it directs to the specific computer whom the e-mail is addressed to. To send e-mail, the process is reversed. A very convenient and inexpensive way to transmit message, e-mail has dramatically affected scientific personnel and business communications

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E-mail Address

Although sending and receiving mail is extremely simple, however, there are a few parameters you must be clear about before you start sending and receiving mails. One such parameter is E-mail address. E-mail and addresses commonly take this form.

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E-mail Dialog Box

Yogendra [email protected]
Here you see that before the character @ (pronounced at the rate) the e-mail account holder’s net name appears and after @ the name of net server appears which hosts this e-mail.

Electronic mail is changing the way world thinks about exchanging information. It has invaded every area of computing and has revolutionized science and business. Scientists across the world are sharing information through electronic mails. There are cases where scientitst working on the same project never meet they do all their work through e-mail. Business travellers laptops can communicate with others without annoying phone tag sessions. This popularity of e-mail is all because of its advantages.

Advantages of e-mail:

(a) Low cost : Electronic mail is an extremely cost effective way to transmit information around, specially when it must be moved quickly. A three page letter to USA can cost 500 through courier or about 100 to fax. The same letter can be sent by e-mail for the cost of one local call charges.

(b) Speed: E-mail can be delivered almost as fast as the wire can carry it.

(c) Waste Reduction : E-mail goes a long way toward reducing the cluster of paper in the modern office, not to mention saving many trees

 (d) Easy to use : It is easy to send an e-mail. You don’t have to re-type it three times, find an envelope and go to corner to buy a stamp, and then find a mail box.

(e) Record maintenance : Because all messages are files, you can automatically maintain a record of communication with someone else.

(f) Patience : E-mail, wait until you read it. It does not have the jangling urgency of a
phone call. 

Viewing Received Mails

Once you have created your e-mail account, you can log on it and view your mail. For this you will have to get back to web page that allows you to log into your e-mail account. For instance, if we have created an e-mail account on yahoo.com, so we will have to go to web page mail yahoo.com. Following steps will guide you how to view the mails in your e-mail accounts.

Step to view a e-mail :

  1. Go to mailyahoo.com web page (by typing the URL http:// mail yohoo.com in the address book) to log into your e-mail account. In this web page, type the newly created logic and password in front of user name and password fields, and click at login

  2.  Click on Inbox to view mails.

  3. Double click on the mail you want to open.

Replying and Forwarding an e-mail message

While you are reading a received e-mail message, you can reply to the sender of this message immediately by clicking at Reply button. When you click at Reply button, it takes you to the compose window where, automatically the address of the sender appears in front of the box i.e. the sender becomes recipient of reply message. Now in compose window, you can write the replying mail message and send it.

Attaching a file with the mail

Suppose you have written a story or painted a picture that you wish to share with a friend, then e-mail is a great help. Save in your computer your story or note or picture or whatever you wish to share with others. A file sent with the e-mail is called an attachment, for it is attached to a regular e-mail. You can send almost anything with an e-mail that is saved in a file. To attach a file, type the address and compose the message as usual. Then click the insert file button in Outlook Express or the Attach Button in messenger. A dialog box will appear in which you can select the file you wish to attach and send it.

Sending Mail

To send mails to your friend and relatives, you need and need to first log into your e-mail account then follow these steps:

(a) After logging into your e-mail account, you some accounts) buttons to compose a new ma un e-mail account, you need to click at compose a a new mail message to be sent.

(b) in the compose message window, you will see various fields which are to be used for the following things :

To – Mail ID of recipient.

CC – Mail IDs of recipients of carbon copy of this mail message.

BCC – Mail IDs of recipients blind carbon copy.

Subject – Title of the mail message.

• The carbon copy i.e. cc field allows you to send the same mail message to multiple recipients at the same time. For example, if a manager wants to send same message to all his/ her subordinates, he/ she may use this field for entering the mail IDs of the subordinates

• The Blind carbon copy i.e. BCC field allows the sender to send some mail message to multiple recipients without letting them know that some other persons also
have received the same message.

• Separate multiple e-mail address by commas or semicolons

(C) Fill in the details of e-mail message and write the text of message in the box designated for it. If you want to attach! a file with your e-mail message, first browse through your computer to select the desired file and then click at Attach (on same mail servers, you need to first click at attach button then browse and finally at done button). Once you are through with composing the e-mail message, click at send. And your e-mail will be sent to the recipients.

Emoticons

While writing e-mail to your friends and relatives, sometimes you strongly feel like expressing your emotions. Since your mails recipient cannot see you or hear you, expressing your emotions to him/her becomes a difficult task. To make it easy for you, emotions are available here. Emoticons or smiley are the symbols used for expressing emotions or conveying facial expressions.

Internet uses

Search Engines

Until now you were surfing internet by visiting sites known to you. What if you want to view particular information but you do not know which site would provide you that information In that case you need to search for that information on the web and this can be done for you through search engines, a program used for searching information on the Internet. Finding information using a search engine There are many search engines on the web. The searching process is similar on these search engines. Some popular search engines are as follows:

  • search engines
    search engines

We are going to learn the information searching process in a very popular search engine and that is google (www.google.com)

To search for web pages pertaining to a specific information, all you have to do is :

Step 1: Go to the home page of the search engine.

Step 2: Type the information to be searched for in the box provided for it.

Step 3: Now click at the search button next to it. Within a few seconds, the search engine will search for that information and display the links to the web pages which are linked to your desired information in some way.

Finding People on the Net

The internet provides several search engines that are primarily intended to help you locate general information. However, many search engines also offer a way to search for basic information about people and places.

If you want to find out a person’s e-mail ID, shown numbers, street address, you can use this service. To do this all you have to do is go to one such and then supply some information (like name etc.) required to search desired information. We have do this through the people search utility of yahoo.

For instance, if you want to search e-mail ID of a person, follow these steps:

Step 1. Log on the www.yahoo.com.

Step 2. Now click at people link on the home page of yahoo. Step

Step 3: You will see the people search page on your screen. Now type the first and last name of the person whose e-mail ID you want to search for.

Step 4. Click search button and the search engine will search for the name given in its data house and display the results on your screen.

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Chat

Chatting is the fantastic thing. On Internet, chatting is like text where phone in a telephone conversation, you say some thing, people hear it and respond. You hear their responses on the spot and can reply instantly. In the same manner in chatting, you type a message on your screen which is immediately received by the recipient, then the recipient can type a message in response to your message which is received by you instantly.

Step 1. Log on the site www.yahoo.com and then click at chat link.

Step 2: Now the chat server of www.yahoo.com asks you to enter nickname i.e. a name you want to chat yourself with. We entered name “vipin” in it. In current chat session, we will now be known as “vipin” to other user.

Step 3: Now it will log on its server and you can now chat with other users. See names of the other users who are currently chatting, are displayed in a list box on same server. You need to click at Send Button to send your message.
On most chat sites, you can also change rooms by clicking at Room link. Room basically refers to a group of approachable chat users. One can chat with all other users in the same chat room. To chat with users in other chat rooms, one needs to change the room.

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FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

The term ‘FTP’ is used in a number of different, though interrelated senses. First, FTP refers to the file transfer protocol which defines a method for transferring files from one computer to another a network. A computer chat stores files for transferusing this protocolandis called an FTP server or FTP site

Downloading files through your browser

Both icons and sites names are links that let you navigate around the FTP file system Click on folder or name to open a directory etc. When you click on a file name or page icon, if the browser can handle the file type the file will be displayed in the browser’s “save file” command. To download a copy to your computer, yahoo can also download a file by first selecting its icon, right clicking upon it, selecting the option copy to folder, and then by specifying the folder on your computer. When the downloading is in progress, a window similar to the one shown in the given figure appears. Notice the icon representing FTP sites.

Uploading files through browser

Uploading a file means ‘transfer of the file from your computer to the FTP site. However, to upload your files, you need to login an authorized user. In other words, only the authorized user can upload files.

Uploading files

Step 1. Open the desired FTP site in your browser and login as an authorized use minimize.

Step 2. Now click My Computer icon and reach at the folder where your file to be upload rests.

Step 3. Select the file to be uploaded and then select Edit menu’s copy command.

Step 4. Now maximize the browser window wherein you have opened FTP site and then click either at paste icon or select edit paste command.

Step 5. And you will see a window showing this process.

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Telnet

Telnet is an older internet utility that lets you log on to remote computer system. Basically. a telnet program gives you a character based terminal window on another system. You get a log on prompt on that system. If you have permitted access, you can work on that system just as you would if you were sitting next to it.

Traditionally, telnet has been used by people who have login on remote systems and want to do serious work there.
News Group

A news group or form is like a community bulletin board. You can post a message reply to a message or just read message, and when a user sends a message, the news server posts it for other members of the news group to read. They can now respond to your message, Groups of related messages are known as Threads!

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 important 

» Internet is a network of many small networks that exist all over the world.
» The world wide web is a set of programs, standard and protocols that allow the multimedia file to be created, displayed and linked on the internet.
 »  The hypertext is a combination of text graphic image, audio, video tracks and hyperlink.
» Sending and receiving message electrically is called e mail.
» Telnet is an internet utility that lets you log on to remote computer system.

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                 Modem

Modem To connect our computer to the Internet through a telephone line, we need a modem. Its full name is Modulator Demodulator. It is such an electronic machine that converts the digital data entered in our computer into analog signals and the analog signals into digital data. In order to transmit information over long distances through telephone lines, it is necessary to convert it into analog signals.

There are two types – external modems and internal modems. .

1. External Modem External Modem It is the size of a small box, which is kept near the computer. It also has several indicator lights, which indicate the movement of the modem. Such modems can be easily removed from one computer and connected to another computer. These are a bit expensive.

2. Internal Modem Internal Modem These modems are installed inside the box of the CPU. In fact these are only in the form of a card. Their price is less. There is no difference between the two types of modems in terms of functionality and usability. We can use any type of modem as per our convenience.

  Cambridge Ring

It is a type of ring network. It was first developed at the University of Cambridge in the US, but there have been many improvements to the original design. Its improved form is made by each manufacturer. In this, the transmission of data is done sequentially (ie bit after bit) and in the same direction till the loop is completed. Each device (or instrument) in the network is connected to the network through a ring station. There is only one interface between them.
In this, one ring station sends messages to another station through mini packets. Mini packets are generated by a monitor station, initially they are empty. If a station has to send a message to another station, it fills the data in an empty mini packet passing through there and also writes the destination address. The loaded packet continues to travel and on reaching the destination the message is copied. Also a proper mark is put on the packet that the message has been received. The packet continues to travel and continues to the sending station. Only a certain number of mini packets can travel at a time. In this type of network, the monitoring station has a great responsibility. He controls and keeps track of the movement of data across the network.

  Gateway

In practice, any business organization or company can connect to more than one network simultaneously and can also connect many types of equipment together. Networks are also quite diverse due to their structures. There are. Most local area networks are small-sized systems designed to interconnect microcomputers and other electronic equipment within an office or department. While it is always good to have a separate local area network for a specific purpose, there are many reasons. An organization may also wish to interconnect all of its networks.

The work of connecting two networks is done by Gateway. These are systems that solve the problem of each variation of the two networks to be connected, such as difference in packet sizes, etc. Gateways are used in a local area. It is also necessary to connect the network to a wide area network. In such cases, a computer can also act as a gateway to a network rather than as a separate device or node. This function is often two wide. Area networks are used to connect. By connecting wide area networks through gateways, we can also create a nationwide or worldwide communication network. Internet is one such network, which is spread around the world through various gateway computers. When two similar networks, mainly local area networks, are interconnected, this requires a special type of gateway, called a set or bridge, in this case because the two networks are the same. use the same protocol, so there is no communication from one network to another. There is no need to change the format or content of the data packets being sent. In effect, a bridge connects two identical local area networks to form a larger network, while maintaining the identity, function, reliability, and security of both networks.

                     chatting

Persons sitting on two computers connected to a network and placed side by side can have a written conversation with each other. This action is called chatting. In this, both people type their words on their respective keyboards, which are immediately visible on each other’s monitors. Thus they can easily communicate in writing. Chatting facility is also available on the internet. With this, we can live in any part of the world, where there is internet facility.
There are sites available that allow multiple people to log into the same chat room at the same time. By joining such chat rooms, we can interact directly with other persons belonging to the same chat room. We type our words on our keyboards, which are also displayed on the computers of all other people connected to the chat room. Similarly, another person can reach us by typing his point there.

  Protection of computer

Nowadays computer is being widely used in every field. It does many of our tasks in seconds, which saves our time. For the computer to work safely, we need it
1. We should always keep the computer in a dust-free place, for this usually choose such a place
It should be closed from all sides and we should also clean the computer daily, so that dust particles do not sit on it.
2. Due to continuous work, the computer becomes very hot, so we should keep the temperature of the workplace low.
3. Computer requires a certain power-supply, so keep this in mind. There should be no interruption in the power supply. The power supply must be at a fixed voltage. needed. For this, U.P.S. Is used.

4. A computer code or program that enters the computer and destroys its working system. These viruses in the computer are often from compact discs, pen drives and each other from the Internet. Keep on spreading in the computer. Therefore, to keep our computer safe from these computer viruses, we. Antivirus program should be used.

What are the benefits of internet for us?

 : Advantages of internet Advantages of internet We get many benefits from the use of internet. Some of these special benefits are summarized below.
1. Through the Internet, we can reach any information, pictures, videos etc. from any corner of the world to any corner in a matter of moments.
2. We can also send and receive our e-mails through the Internet. It is the easiest and cheapest way to send and receive messages.
3. Through the Internet, we can talk to our friend or relative sitting in any part of the world. This is called Internet Chatting.
4. From the Internet, we can get the information we need on any subject sitting at home. Information in the World Wide Web is divided into headings and subheadings. We can get the information of our need in minutes by filling few words related to it.
5. Through the Internet, we can promote our ideas and things all over the world. It is the simplest and most effective means of advertising.
6. Through the Internet, we can also do business and buy and sell our goods and services.
7. Through internet we can participate in various competitions and also put our resume on internet for job or employment.
8. Games can also be played through the Internet and enjoyment of many types of entertainment can be achieved.

This list of benefits of the Internet is not complete. In fact, it is impossible to fully describe the benefits of the Internet. As it is expanding, the utility of the Internet is also increasing.

What is World Wide Web? what is web server

World Wide Web World Wide Web or www It is such a data base available on the Internet. which is spread all over the world. Any user of the Internet can get information through this database. In this, the information is divided into different headings and subheadings. The consumer can get the information of his requirement according to the headings. Initially, only written text was broadcast and available on it, but now any such material can be found in it like picture, sound, film etc., which can be prepared and stored on computer. Searching for any information in the World Wide Web is a very time consuming and laborious task. Although the World Wide Web is the largest part of the Internet, it is not the Internet. Due to its prevalence, it is mistakenly considered to be the entire Internet. In the World Wide Web, information is stored in web sites. A web site is a document or file that contains information. A web site on the Internet has a unique name or identity. It is reached by the same name. View the information stored in web sites on the screen of your computer

Internet Explorer (Internet Explorer). The help of browser programs like Netscape Navigator etc. is taken.

Web Server Webserver The computers through which internet facility is provided to the consumers are called web servers. In fact, only web servers are connected to a network called the Internet. Here is the backbone of the Internet. All other computers can connect to the Internet only by connecting to a web server. Most web sites are also maintained on Wave servers. Internet Service Provider
provides Internet services to consumers through its web servers; e-mail facility file transfer facility
We may create our own web site on our computer and make it available to other users of the internet through a web server.

  State the hardware and software requirements for the Internet.

To connect our computer to the Internet or to take advantage of the Internet, we must have the following things

1. A Pentium-1 or better personal computer with 32 megabytes of RAM or more and with a minimum hard disk capacity of 2 gigabytes.

2. Windows 95, Windows 98 or higher operating system or Linux operating system.
3. A good modem, with a capacity of 32.6 or 56,6 kilobytes per second or more.
4. A telephone connection.
5. Internet connection from an Internet Service Provider company.
6. Any browser software; For example, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.

Apart from these, having a CD ROM drive and a good anti-virus software makes it possible to take advantage of the Internet well and avoid problems. Firstly any internet service provider company; For example, we buy an internet connection from BSNL, Satyam Online, Mantra Online etc. From there we get the username and password, through which we can connect to the Internet. We install a modem in our computer and connect it to the telephone line. Along with this, internet connection is established in the computer. After the connection is established, we always connect our computer to the web server of the Internet service provider company. In this way our computer gets connected to the internet. Now we use a browser program; For example, by running Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator, you can open the web sites you want and take advantage of other features of the Internet.

What is internet? Write its uses. Or what is internet?

The Internet is currently the largest and most popular network in the world. Almost all the networks in the world are connected to the Internet. Thus it is also a network of networks. At present, more than crore people of the world are taking advantage of its services. The Internet has revolutionized information technology worldwide by linking together innumerable networks of different countries. Connecting to any computer around the world or a website loaded in it is as simple as dialing a telephone number. This is the secret of the worldwide popularity of the Internet. There are many types of services and facilities available to us on the Internet,

  which the following are the main – main uses

E-mail This is the name of the electronic mail facility. Through this we can send and receive any information or message electronically. It is a very cheap method of communication. In fact, the primary purpose of the Internet is to exchange messages.

 Website A website is such a document, in which we can fill the information of our choice and make it available to the users of the Internet. Each website has a specific name, from which it can be identified and opened. This is a facility in which any person, organization, company etc. can fill any type of information about himself and broadcast it on the Internet. Companies can place their advertisements in it and unemployed person can also search for jobs by filling his/her resume. It is very cheap to advertise in it.

 Telnet TELNET is the service in which we can connect our host computer, which is connected to the Internet, with another host computer of the same type and use its services, information etc. as a terminal. can.

 File Transfer Protocol File Transfer Protocol or FTP is a program or facility in which we can copy files from any computer connected to the Internet to our computer. For this, the user has to first connect to that computer and access the information or file that he wants to use from the navigator program.

  Archie Archie It is a program to search for information on the Internet, through which we can find the information we need from the store of information available on the Internet. Archie is actually a collection of servers connected to the Internet, in which information is also given about what information is given in different files. We can get that information by connecting to a server (ie its network) via Telnet.

  Gopher Gopher It was developed at the University of Minnesota, USA. This is a menu based program, which gives us access to the information filled in the Internet. Archie only tells us where our information is, while Gopher finds that information and brings it to our computer screen.

  VERONICA It is short form of ‘Very Easy Rodent Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Archieves’. It is a program through which we can access any information faster. It is a good alternative to Gopher’s menu system.

 Mosaic Mosaic It is such a software interface, through which we can reach from one place connected to the internet by jumping very easily. This interface is used by the World Wide Web (www).

  Internet Chatting Internet Chatting With the use of the Internet, we can talk to our friends sitting in front of the computer at home in any part of the world, where Internet facility is available. This action is called internet chatting. In fact, there are some sites available on the Internet that allow multiple people to log into the same chat room at the same time. By joining such chat rooms, we can interact directly with other persons belonging to the same chat room. We type our words on our keyboards, which are also displayed on the computers of all other people connected to the chat room. Similarly, another person can reach us by typing his point there.

Describe the major parts of the addressing system of the Internet.

The addressing system of the Internet has two main parts – the domain name and the IP address.

Domain Name Domain Name A domain name is a name by which a website is identified. For example, the website name of  gkinupsc is www.gkinupsc.com. This is also the address of that website. This system of naming and addressing websites is called the Domain Name System or DNS. Any person can open any website in the world just by giving domain name and use the information filled in it. That’s why domain names are often called Universal Resource Locator or URL.

Some of the major domain names and their description are as follows

Domainname purpose
.comBusiness organization.
.gov“Government Institutions.
.org– Non-commercial organizations.
.edu Educational Institutions.
.netnetworking organization.
.intInternational Organization
.inIndia based organization.
.ukUK based organization
.infoInformation Provider Organization.

IP address IP address There are certain rules to regulate the exchange of information on a network, which are called protocols. The Internet also has a certain protocol, which is called TCP/IP. Its full name is ‘Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol’. It is a collection of rules governing the Internet. In this, each computer or every website connected to the Internet is given a fixed address, which is called an IP address. It consists of four parts, each part containing a number from 0 to 255. All the parts are connected with each other by dot (.). For example, 197.6210-15 is an IP address. This address identifies a website or the computer on which the website is stored. No two computers or websites can have the same IP address.  

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