Computer Software Basics – Computer software Basics for beginners

Computer Software Basics

Human ingenuity has never shown any fatigue in trying to expand the horizons of our computers. Over the years professional programmers have come out with incredible software and programs to enable our computer  to perform almost any types of task. Most of the currently possible tasks can be broadly divided into a dozen categories. Even within a specific  category, there are many types of jobs that a computer software is capable of performing. This Post is dedicated to the computer software that  plays a very important role in making  computer a  household  name.

Types of software

A computer system consists of hardware and software  for its proper functioning.

Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer  i.e. the components that can be seen and touched. Input devices, output devices, CPU, floppy disk etc. Example of Computer Hardware .

Software represents the se of programs that govern the operation of a computer system and make the hardware run.

Software can be classified broadly into two categories

System software

A computer is merely a machine that knows nothing of itself. Rather it requires instruction for each and  everything it perform. These instruction are provided to it through software. The software that controls internal computer operation is known as system software.

The system software can further be classified into two categories:

  • Operating system
  • Language processor

Operating system

Hardware is nothing  but a finely designed machinery. A machine can work only when it is given instruction or commands. A machine is ultimately  a machine only, which is always made to work. In case of computer ,it is either us if we do that or some other which does it for us. This some other is nothing  buy our very own operating system.

Operating  system is just like our secretary. As the boss gives  order gives to his secretary and the secretary does all the  work for his boss.  The secretary  himself decide how to do ? what to ?etc. same way, we pass our order/request to operating system and the operating system does it for us. Operating system itself decides. How to do? What to do? when to do? The primary goal of an operating system is thus to make the computer system convenient to use and secondary goal is to use computer hardware in an efficient manner.

An operating system is an important component of a computer system which controls all other components of the computer  system .

Some operating system are as follows : windows , Unix , Linux etc.

Major components of a computer system are as follows:

  • The Hardware,
  • The Operating systems,
  • The Application program routines (compiler, linkers, database management system, utility programs)
  • The Humanware (users).

Types of OS (Operating System)

There are different types of OS available, which require different types of hardware to run upon. The operating systems are of mainly following types:

  1.  Single program OS: As the name suggests, this OS is single user operating system, so only one user program can be supported and executed by it at any point of time. Multiprogram : Unlike single program OS, this is multi-user OS. It supports  multiprogramming i.e. more than one user can be supported by it, therefor more than one user programs are loaded and activated in the main store at the same time. These active programs are executed using some techniques one b one.

  2. Time Sharing OS : This OS uses the time sharing technique. Each active user program is given a fair share of CPU time, if the time elapses or an i/o operation is requested, CPU shifts over to the next job waiting and the previous program is put to wait in case time is over) or handled over to i/o manages in case I/O request is made). The active programs are scheduled for execution using certain job scheduling techniques.

  3. Real Time OS : In real time OS, the jobs have fixed deadlines and the job have to be completed within their deadlines. The systems performance is measured by its ability to complete its jobs within the specified deadlines. If a job cannot be completed within its deadline, this situation is called Deadline Overrun. An efficient real OS is that which gives minimum possible deadline overruns.

  4. Multiprocessing OS : The multiprocessing OS is capable of handling more than one processor as the job has to be executed on more than one processor. The multiprocessing OS should be capable of load sharing in case of identical processors so that the systems efficiency improves. In case of unidentical processors, the multiprocessing OS should be able to control the super (main) processor and in turn control the working of slave processors.

Application Software

 This type of software pertains to one specific application. For instance, a software that can perform railway reservation function cannot prepare result for a school.

These are the programs written by programmers to enable computer to perform a specific task; Example – Processing Words, Inventory Control, Handling Calculation and Figures, Medical Accounting, Financial accounting, Result preparation, Railway Reservation, Billing etc.

Application software can further be subdivided into three categories –

  • Packages Software
  • Utility Software
  • Customized Software

You can understand with the help of the figure.

Application software
Application software

Language Processor

  1.  Assembler: This language processor converts the program written in assembly language into machine language.

  2.  Interpreter : This language processor converts a HLL (High level language) program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line. If there is any error in any line, it reports it at the same time and program execution cannot resume until the error is rectified. Interpreter must always be present in the memory every time the program is executed as every time the program is run, it is first interpreted and then executed. For error debugging, interpreter is very much useful as it reports the error at the same time. But once errors are removed, unnecessary usage of memory takes place as it has to be present in the memory always.

  3.  Complier : It also converts the HLL program into machine language but the conversion manner is different. It converts the entire HLL program in one go, and reports all the errors of the program along with the line numbers. After all the errors are removed, the program is recompiled, and after that the compiler is not needed in the memory as the object program is available.

Fact file – Programmers prefer to write their programs in one of the high level language ( HLL) because it is much easier to code in such language. However the computer does not understand any language other than its own machine language ( Binary language)  therefore, it becomes necessary to process a HLL program so as to make it understandable to the computer. The system programs, which perform this very job, are language processor. 

 

Computer Software Basics For Beginners Which You Should Know.

Computer Software Basics

Basic computer software list

Basic file – Computer Software Basics – Computer software Basics for beginners – Facts

» Hardware represents the physical and tangible parts of the computer.

» Software represents the set of programs that govern the operation of a computer system and makes the hardware run.

» The software that controls internal computer operations, is called system software.

» An operating system is a program which acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.

» There are different types of OS available – single program OS, multiprogram OS, time sharing OS, real time OS, multiprocessing OS etc.

» A language processor converts a program written in High Level Language to machine language.

» Application software is a set of programs necessary to carry out operations for a specified application.

 » There are three categories of application software (i) Packages, (ii) Utilities and (iii) Customized software.

  Did you know

» System software  is a software that controls internal computer operations.

» Basic file

An operating system  is a program, which acts as an interface between  a user and the hardware (i.e. all computer research. )

» Basic file

 Word processing package is a package that processes textual matter and creates organized and flawless document.

» Basics 

An electronic spreadsheet is a program that accepts data in a tabular form and  allows users to manipulate calculate/analyze data in the desired manner.

» Remember

A database management system (DBMS) is a package that can handle and manage bulk of stored data.

»  Basic file

Desktop publishing software handles page layout by combining the  functions of a traditional typesetter and a layout artist .

»  Facts

The application software that can create professional looking visual aids is called  presentation graphics software.

» Facts

The software that incorporates images , text sound , computer animation , video sequences is known as multimedia software.

» Remember

The application software that can create professional looking visual aids is called  presentation graphics  software.

»  Remember 

Utilities are those application programs that assist the  computer by performing housekeeping functions like backing up disk or scanning cleaning  viruses etc.

»  Basic file

Disk  Defragmenter speeds up disk access by rearranging the files and free space on your, so that files are stored in contiguous units and free space is consolidated in one contiguous block.

Ques – 1 – What are the difference between hardware and software ?

Ans – 

Hardware Software 

Hardware refers to all parts of a computer that can be touched or can be felt. A computer can not without hardware. 

Example – Keyboard, C.P.U, Mouse, Speaker etc.

Software is a set of program or instructions or commands that aware the computer hardware. How to operate or process inputs. 

Example – Taxpoint, Notepad etc. 

Ques – 2 – Why are antivirus software  considered important ?

Ans – A computer virus is a  computer program that can  Inkjet other computer program by  modifying  that Includes copy of himself Moreover some so antivirus software remains present in memory all the time so that they can detect the viruses and counter attack them.

Ques – 3 – What is Application Software ?

Ans – Application software is a set of program  necessary to carry out operation for a language.

Write any five system software and application softwares:

System Software Application Software 
1. Operating System 1. Email Programs 
2. Devices Drivers 2. Database Software 
3. Middle wore3. Internet  Browsers
4.Unitility Software 4. Power point 
5. Desk Operate System.5. Office Excel

Write the Full form –

OS –  Operating System.

DTP – Desktop publishing .

DBMS – Database Management System .

HLL – High level language .

LLL – Low level language.

Computer Software Basics

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