Solid waste pollution definition
Unwanted substances remaining after human consumption, which are direct or indirectly affect the environment, is called solid waste – and this phenomenon is called solid waste pollution. Several tonnes of solid waste are discharged daily by the industries. Apart from this, tons of garbage are dumped in rivers or seas every day in the form of solid waste from urban and rural areas. If they are not managed properly, then many types of pollution; For example, land pollution, water pollution etc.
Main Solid Waste Formats
Urban waste – municipal sewage, industrial effluent, domestic effluent, hospital waste etc.
Industrial waste – slag, brine, gram, sludge, sludge, metal, glass, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, wool, yarn and paper waste, fly ash, plastics, waste from tanneries and small scale industries, waste water effluent etc.
household waste – organic waste from the kitchen; Such as crockery, tin cans, plastic cans, vials, bags, glass vials, torn clothes, pieces of paper, cardboard boxes, ashes etc.
Rural waste – agricultural waste etc.
Nuclear plant waste – radioactive hazardous waste etc.
Organic waste – dead organisms, excreta, urine etc.
Impact of solid waste
Following are the effects of solid wastes.
• The most prominent effect of solid waste is in the form of land pollution.
• Water falling on solid waste causes the waste to rot, causing diseases.
• If solid waste remains lying on the ground for a long time, then that land becomes sick.
• Polythene, plastic, rubber and paint waste are inorganic. Burning it causes air pollution. Due to the consumption of this waste by animals, they get diseases like tumors, bowel research etc.
• These solid wastes in the drains cause blockage in the drains. • When solid waste mixes with water, it creates the problem of water pollution.
Solid waste management and control
The management and control of solid waste can be done in the following ways:
• All solid waste should be disposed of separately.
• Recycled materials from household waste should be separated and disposed of.
• The organic waste should be collected separately (biogas) and used for power generation etc.
• Metals from industrial waste can be separated and recycled.
• Sewerage water etc. should be used for irrigation after cleaning it with proper equipment.
• Infection containing hospital waste should be properly disposed of by installing incineration equipment away from the city.
• The wastes of industries can be analyzed by the scientists of Research and Development Department, recycled materials can be recovered and put to use.
Urban Solid Waste Act, 2000
(Management & Maintenance)
Under this, the following provisions have been made
• All local bodies are expected to undertake waste collection, storage, transportation, processing and disposal.
• Waste segregation, sanitary landfill and common safety options are required to be made part of the master plan (as per Supreme Court directive).
• There is a need to include solid waste management in programs like Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Scheme (JNNURM) and Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT).
• It is the responsibility of the Pollution Control Board to enforce the Hazardous Waste and (Biomedical Waste) Rules.