Russia was ruled by an autocratic tsarist rule for a long time. The autocratic Tsar rulers of Russia believed in the divine principle of kingship. He believed that the Tsar was the background monopoly of Russia and that he was not responsible to anyone in the world.
At the time of the revolution, Tsar Nicholas II was the ruler of Russia (1894–1917 AD), who believed in reactionary-autocratic rule. He adopted the policy of repression of the main cause against the progressive tendencies. The press had no freedom, Russian citizens had no rights, and intellectual activities were strictly controlled.
Due to such repressive policies, dissatisfaction among the farmers and workers increased. Organizations and political parties of democratic and socialist ideas organized it and systematically gave it the form of revolution. Further, the defeat by Japan in 1904-05 and the defeat of Russia in the war with Germany in the First World War (July 28, 1914) increased the discontent of the public with the Tsar. The rebellion against the inept rule started, which took the form of the Russian Revolution of 1917. After this, tsarism came to an end in Russia and communism was established. The Russian Revolution not only affected Russia and Europe, but had a profound effect on many countries of the world.
condition of russia before the revolution
Before 1881 AD, the influence of feudalism in Russia was widely spread in the society. The feudal people used to take forced labor from the peasants and got them cultivated on their lands. These farmers were in the form of ‘Bhoomi Das’ or ‘Ardha Das’. They were called serfs, their condition was very pathetic. The feudal people used to oppress these land slaves in many ways. Thus, before the revolution, there were three lower classes in Russian society, the upper class, this was the class of feudal and aristocrats, which included great feudal lords, members of the tsarist and high officials. The rise of the middle class was the result of industrialization. It included writers, doctors, lawyers, thinkers, philosophers and businessmen etc.
Lower class This was the class of farmers and laborers. The people of the upper and middle classes looked at him with disgust. Most of the Russian people were illiterate and superstitious. Due to the primacy of the Church, the clergy held an important place in Russian society. This class also exploited the common man.
Before industrialization, agriculture was the main occupation of the people. The farmers were financially poor, due to which they had to lead a life of poverty and starvation. The farms were small and they did not even have the knowledge of the latest technology of agriculture. Due to paucity of money they could not even invest on agricultural machinery. Even after working hard, they did not get enough food, because most of their produce was grabbed by the feudal and state employees.
During the time of Peter the Great, factories started being established here, but foreign capital was invested in these factories and the aim of their owners was to earn maximum profit. He had no sympathy for the poor Russian people, nor did he provide facilities to Russian workers and laborers. Under these circumstances, there was a shortage of food grains, clothes and other livable goods in Russia, due to which the condition of workers and laborers became worse than that of animals. The Tsarshahi did not make any effort to rectify this situation, rather the corruption of the government officials and the atrocities of the soldiers made the situation serious day by day. The Tsarist rulers did not improve the economic condition of the Russians and made the revolution inevitable.
The political condition of Russia before the revolution was also not good. Tsar Nicholas II, a reactionary and autocratic ruler, also ran the lower houses (dumas) of the Russian parliament as he wished. He adjourned the Dumas whenever he wished and suspended them whenever he wished. Their members were deported whenever they wished, and taken captives whenever they wished.
Therefore, it can be said that before the revolution the political condition of Russia was not good. The people were fed up with the ruling class, due to which rebellion was arising in the minds of the people against the rule.
most Important Notes
• The autocratic Tsar rulers of Russia believed in the divine principle of kingship.
Tsar Nicholas II was the ruler of Russia (1894-1917 AD) at the time of the revolution.
• Government officials in Russia’s bureaucracy are very incompetent, useless, happy. They were luxury and bribery.
• Russo-Japanese War (1904-05 AD), took place on January 22, 1905, in which the Russian army was completely defeated.
• On January 22, 1905, the Tsar opened fire on workers in St. Petersburg. This incident happened on Sunday. In Russian history it is known as Bloody Sunday.
• The Russian Revolution of 1917 AD was a fierce bloody revolution, which is known in history as the Communist Revolution or the Bolshevik Revolution. .
• The real beginning of this revolution is considered to be from 6th November, 1917.
• Karl Marx gave the slogan of the workers of the world united.
• Jayaji Plekhanov founded the Russian Socialist Democratic Party in Russia in 1883.
• Socialist Democratic Labor Party was founded in Russia in 1898 AD. It was led by Nikolai.
• The Socialist Democratic Workers’ Party was divided into two parties named Mensheviks and Bolsheviks in 1903 AD. The Menshevik party was led by Karensky and the Bolshevik party was led by Lenin.
• Karl Marx was a famous philosopher, he wrote the book Das Kapital. It is considered the father of socialism.
On March 7, 1917, thousands of workers gathered in a place called Petrograd and revolted against the Czar administration.
• The Bolshevik Revolution was the second Russian revolution, which started in the month of October, hence it is also known as the October Revolution. The main leader of this revolution was Lenin.
After Lenin signed a treaty with Germany, the Allies began to hostile to the Russian government. They wanted the Bolshevik rule to end in Russia.
The end of autocratic tsarist rule, the emergence of the first socialist state, the establishment of a communist government, the end of social inequality, economic planning, etc. are the effects of the revolution of 1917 on Russia.
• In 1920 AD, the International Labor Union was established under the League of Nations.
• Fascism and Nazism emerged in Italy and Germany respectively, their rise as a reaction to imperialism. .
• Poland, Finland and Georgia were the colonies of Russia. After the revolution they were given freedom.