Meaning of the Thirty Years’ War
what treaty ended the thirty years’ war in 1648
The Thirty Years’ War was an international war. In this war, apart from Emperor Ferdinand II of Germany’s states, France, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Poland also participated, this war affected the whole of Europe. There was terrible destruction in this war. In this war, the combined forces of France and Paris defeated the combined forces of Emperor Fernandez and Bavaria. Between the two armies in 1648 AD went to treaty Bestfolia. Thus ended this war.
Thirty Years War causes
The main causes of the Thirty Years’ War are:
(1) Religious differences – The main reason for the Thirty Years’ War was the religious dispute between Catholics and Protestants. The Treaty of Augsburg (1555 AD) with many flaws could neither satisfy the Catholics nor the Protestants. By the Treaty of Augsburg, it was unfair to give every king of Germany the right to determine his state-religion. The biggest drawback of this treaty was not to leave the right of choice of religion to the will of the people. Under the section of religious protection, in the event of a Catholic accepting a Protestant religion, the system of depriving him of his office as well as land property could not be fully implemented. Many individuals, even after becoming Protestant of the Catholic apostasy, were retaining their right over the property attached to their office, which angered Catholics.
(2) Political Cause – the desire of the rulers of Germany to be free from the control and interference of the emperor and established sovereign national governments. His ambition was the second major cause of the Thirty Years’ War. Due to the autocracy and repressive actions of Emperor Ferdinand II, the kings of different states of Germany were very dissatisfied. They were now looking for a way and an opportunity to get rid of the emperor at the earliest. France wanted to extend its borders to the Rhine River. Sweden and Denmark were also willing to enlarge their borders and got the opportunity in the Thirty Years’ War.
(3) Economic Cause – The Catholic Church wanted to recover its landed property that had been unauthorizedly occupied by the Protestants. Tensions between Catholics and Protestants over the church’s right to property had become fierce.
(4) Immediate Cause – The immediate cause of the Thirty Years’ War was a rebellion that broke out in Bohemia in 1618 AD. Terrified by the fanatical and tyrannical Catholic policy of Emperor Ferdinand II, the Protestant states of Germany had formed a Protestant union in 1608 AD under the leadership of Frederick, the Palatine king. Against this, the Catholic states also established a Catholic union in 1609 AD under the leadership of Maximilian, the ruler of Bavaria. In 1618 AD, the Protestants, enraged by the autocracy and tyranny of Emperor Ferdinand, threw down some officials from the windows of the palace of Prague, the capital of Bohemia and revolted against the king. The emperor ordered the suppression of this rebellion. With this the Thirty Years’ War started in Germany.
Thirty Years War Result
The following are the results of the Thirty Years’ War:
1. Deep blow to Spanish power – Spain’s power as a result of this war. He was deeply shocked that his downfall began.
2. End of Political Unity in Germany – Due to this war Germany was divided into many small states and its political unity ended.
3. Germany’s horrific loss – In this war, a large number of people of Germany came in handy, due to which many parts of the country were destroyed and deserted. Germany’s population dropped to a third from earlier.
4. The rise of Prussia – As a result of this war, the power of the state of Brandenburg increased, which later progressed in the form of Prussia and succeeded in separating Austria into Germany and unification of Germany.
5. Awakening among the general public – As a result of this war, awareness was generated among the people, due to which they started demanding their rights.
6. Colonial Expansion – The result of this war appeared in the form of colonial expansion. Colonies of European states began to be expanded by doing a variety of geographical explorations.