Introduction to Peter the Great
How did Peter the Great die
Theodor died in 1682 AD. Peter was only ten years old at that time. Therefore, he ruled jointly with his elder brother Ivan till 1696 AD under the protection of his sister Sophia. After Ivan’s death in 1696, Peter took over the reins of the government and ruled the country with great skill and proficiency till 1725 AD and was able to establish Russia in the position of a proud great nation among European countries. achieved success.
There was great chaos in Russia when Peter the Great became the ruler. Despite being a huge country, it had very little trade relations with other countries. The Baltic Sea was under the control of Sweden and the Black Sea by Turkey. The North Sea used to be frozen with ice for nine to ten months in a year. Therefore, the establishment of connectivity with other European countries by sea was almost impossible.
Peter found himself surrounded by many kinds of difficulties as soon as he became the ruler. Because of those difficulties his freedom was limited. Describing this, the historian Cheville wrote, “Though the Tsar was the sole owner of the country, there were two obstructive forces to limit the power, the first being the head of the Church, who had immense influence in the religious sphere, and the second obstructing power to his They were in the form of bodyguards. They considered themselves higher than the master and kept conspiring against the master.” .
Apart from these, the feudal assembly of Russia was also an obstacle in its independence. Ignorance and superstition prevailed in the country. The clergy were growing in this ignorance. Russian women lay in the darkness of ignorance. In culture also Russia was behind other countries.
Peter was determined to overcome these difficulties. As soon as he took the reins of governance, he studied his difficulties seriously and started efforts to make Russia a developing nation.
Peter the Great pursued the following objectives to make Russia respected and respected among the European powers:
(i) To build friendly relations with European states.
(ii) Seizing the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea.
(iii) Its last, but most important objective was to make the power of the king completely autocratic and to improve the governance of the country by establishing strict administrative rules so that Russia could be seen as a civilized and advanced nation.
He kept trying to fulfill these objectives throughout his life and he also got success in his efforts. Historian Thatcher has described his effort as wonderful and astonishing, writing, “Peter the Great worked tirelessly for the fulfillment of his objectives and in all the objectives he got success which was undoubtedly wonderful.”
Home Policy and Administrative Affairs of Peter the Great
In order to make Russia a great nation of Europe, Peter considered it necessary to make the power of the Czar autocratic – and limitless, and performed the following tasks
(1) Dissolution of the feudal assembly – Peter dissolved the feudal assembly and established an advisory committee in its place and appointed its members from among the loyal chieftains and made this committee a committee of royalists.
(2) Destruction of the bodyguards – The bodyguards made a terrible conspiracy against Peter after he went on a foreign trip. Peter came to know about that conspiracy. He immediately came back to Russia after postponing his tour program and destroyed thousands of bodyguards by giving horrific torture. This act of his put an end to his enemies and he established supreme control over the army.
(3) Improvement in governance – Peter organized the national army and gave high posts to the royalist chieftains. To meet the expenditure of the army, he was given huge jagirs. In this way, considering the military power and capability of Russia became very important for the European states, the 2 Jagdardars made the Kashaks semi-slaves in their respective jagirs and forced them to lead a life of suffering and affluence. Thus the condition of the Kashaks became miserable under Peter’s rule and remained deplorable till the time of the great revolution of the twentieth century.
He created the Senate to look after the governance and appointed its members to the royal office bearers. All the work related to the army, justice and economics started being done under the supervision of the Senate. State employees were appointed fairly on the basis of merit. The provincial governors were appointed by Peter himself. He succeeded in making the government innocent by giving harsh punishment to the corrupt employees. He established peace and order in the country by making strict rules. He put Russia on the path of progress by destroying the bodyguards, abusing the rights of the feudal assembly and establishing control over the church, and by adopting various innovations, painted the country in the color of western civilization. The historian Hage, describing the outcome of Peter’s reforms, wrote, “Peter’s reforms transformed Russia by touching every aspect of national life.”
Fischer, while mentioning the progress of civilization in Russia, wrote, “The great achievement of Peter the Great was to paint Russia in the color of Western civilization. For this, he tried throughout his life and, enduring fierce opposition, brought the country to the highest-level of civilization. leveled it up.” Ferdinand Cheville also had to fight fiercely against the conservatism of most of Peter’s people and on the strength of his infinite patience, he finally got success.
(4) Nationalization of the Church – In 1700 AD, the head of the church died. Peter, considering this as a favorable occasion, did not appoint a new bishop in his place and established a religious association to fill that void and entrusted the work of supervising the affairs of the church to the authority of the said union. The members of this union were appointed by Peter himself from among his obedient men. In this way, even after becoming the head of the church, he started conducting all the works of the church according to his orders. Thus the church was nationalized and Peter was permanently freed from the impediment in his work which was caused by the head of the church.
Foreign Policy of Peter the Great
Peter determined the main objective of his foreign policy to make Russia’s water power effective and for this he set his main duty to take possession of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. To accomplish this, he completed the following tasks:
(1) Right on Azov – Azov was the authority of the Ottoman Sultan at that time. Therefore, Peter tried to defeat the Turks badly by attacking Azov in 1995, but he could not get success. Therefore, increasing his military power, Peter attacked Azov with great speed the following year and drove the Turks from there. Thus, in 1960 AD, Peter took control of Azov and the terror of Russian power began to spread over the countries of Europe.
(2) War with Sweden – Contact with the countries of Western Europe could be established only by making the Baltic Sea a Russian lake. Therefore, considering it necessary to fight with Sweden, Peter made Denmark and Poland his friends in 1700 AD and established a union against Sweden.
(3) Narva conquest – On the throne of Sweden was sitting at that time fifteen year old inexperienced Charles XII. Despite being brave and a fighter, he lacked the qualities of a ruler. Historian Thatcher has written in relation to his ability, “Charles XII, despite being a young man, was a war-loving member of the fighting race, but in addition to military ability, he lacked the qualities of a capable ruler.”
Therefore, as soon as he got the news of the formation of the union against him, he attacked the member of the union Denmark and by capturing the capital of Denmark, Copenhagen forced the ruler there to make a treaty. Soon after, he marched to the Gulf of Finland to help Narva, where Peter lay besieged Narva. Charles XII, displaying unparalleled valor in the battle, defeated Peter badly. This victory greatly increased the power of Sweden.
Battle of Poltava – Charles XII defeated Peter and now turned his attention to the other members of the League, Poland and Saxony. He defeated Poland and forced a treaty, but with Charles XII stuck in war with Poland and Saxony, Peter got an opportunity to increase his power. Charles ordered his army to move towards Moscow after a treaty with Poland was reached. Although the Swedish army fought with Peter at many places, Peter did not fight fiercely anywhere, and the Swedish army advanced only 190 km from Moscow. Now Charles decided to open a second front in Russia and attacked Ukraine. In 1709 AD, Charles XII besieged Poltava. In the middle of the war, Charles fell ill on the bed due to a bullet injury in the leg. At the same time Peter attacked him with a huge army. Peter was victorious after a fierce battle. Charles somehow escaped to the battlefield Seti to save his life and died there after some time. Thus the Battle of Poltava was a decisive battle in which Sweden was completely destroyed. On September 20, 1721 AD, the Kingdom of Sweden was divided between Russia and Prussia by the Treaty of Newstead. According to this treaty, Roop received Estonia, Ingria, Livonia, Karelia and some parts of Finland. Thus Russia’s influence on the Baltic Sea became. Peter pledged not to interfere in the internal affairs of Sweden. Russia began to be counted among the first-class powers of Europe and among the third-class powers of Sweden, Peter was called the Father of the President in Russia.
Peter the Great significance
Assessment – In 1725 AD, Peter the Great passed away after using a long rule of 40 years. Peter gets the credit for making Russia a great powerful, civilized culture and glorious. He was indeed a skilled ruler, a great general and a reformer of a high order. His character was a combination of different types of characteristics and natures. The degree of anger in him was very high and at times his nature also got cruelty, but at the same time he was also a cheerful, tactful person. He was kind and loving towards his friends, but he was harsh and cruel to his enemies.
He was the real father of modern Russia. While sitting on the throne, his country was very weak, rude and orthodox country. He made it a well organized and powerful nation by his efforts. As a result of Peter’s efforts, the state began to be counted among the first-class states of Europe. He cultured the barbaric and uncivilized people of Russia.
And to make it civilized, made his rule completely autocratic and autocratic. He made strict rules and got the general public to follow them and made various reforms for the good of the public. He could not bear his opposition from anyone, not even his own son. His only son, Alektisus, was opposed to his social and political reforms. At first, he tried to make him friendly by explaining to his son, but when his explanation did not yield any result, he put his son in prison, where he died after suffering immense suffering for 6 years, thus he harshly fought his country. Taught the lesson of civilization and innovation, which soon transformed Russia and began to be counted among the possible European countries.