Definition of equality
Like liberty, the views of scholars regarding equality are also erroneous. The meaning of equality can be explained in the following way:
1. Ancient Meaning of Equality – In ancient times, there has been a belief that nature has created all human beings equal. The thinkers of the Stoic sect of Greece believed that being rational, all human beings are equal. Christianity taught It was that all human beings are children of one God and hence they are equal. The American Declaration of Independence in 1776 stated that we take as axiom the truth that all human beings are created equal by God.” A similar view is expressed in the French Declaration of Human Rights – “Manas his From the point of view of rights are born free and equal and always remain free and equal.
(2) Criticism of ancient theory – The above view does not seem to be correct, because nature did not create any two human beings alike. Human body shape. Physical strength, mental ability and moral consciousness are unequal in all respects. Anna Terai wrote that – “The statement that all are equal is as delusional as to say that the earth is flat.”
(3) Modern and true meaning of equality – The true meaning of equality is that by ending the inequality created by the society, every human being should be given equal opportunity to develop his powers as far as possible.
Inequality is of two types – natural inequality and inequality created by society. As it has been written above that nature has created man unequal. This inequality cannot be eliminated. But the inequality created by the society can be removed. Man is a social animal. When a child is born in the society, at that time he is helpless. It is developed only by the grace and services of the society. In the kind of social environment in which he is brought up, so does he become. The distinction of caste, sect, religion etc. is created in his mind by the society itself. Inequality between the poor and the rich in the society. It is a gift of society. No matter how intelligent a child of a poor person is, but due to lack of economics, he is not able to develop his personality, whereas the child of a rich person gets an opportunity to develop his personality. The main reason for this inequality is the conditions created by the society. Equality is the only way to eliminate this inequality
Based on the above discussion, the appropriate definition of equality can be given as follows:
“Equality means that society should not discriminate between individuals on the basis of birth, sex, race, religion etc. and everyone should be given equal opportunity to develop and lead a happy life.”
Definition of equality
Type of equality
(1) Civil equality- It means equality before the law. All citizens of the state should have equal status in the field of law, that is, the laws made by the state should be prescribed equally for all and everyone should get equal protection of law. If a state has among its citizens position, wealth, political views, caste, creed etc. discrimination and conferring special rights on any person or class, it means that there is no legal equality in that state. Equal rights have been provided to the citizens in the Indian Constitution. It is clearly mentioned in the constitution that the state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth and so on.
Political equality – Political equality means that equal political rights are available to the citizens. The demand for such equality is really the basis of democracy. In practice it means that “every citizen has the right to vote and to stand for election and to hold public office according to his merit.” But this also does not mean that all citizens have equal influence in the matters of administration in democratic states. People who are more intelligent, more wealthy or talented, they influence the government more than other people.
(3) Social equality – It means that everyone should be considered equal in social life and discrimination should not be done on the basis of religion, race and caste. But such equality cannot be established by the state by its laws. The caste system in India has stood on the basis of high and low and in the same way discrimination of high and low is seen between different communities. Such equality can be established in the society only when all the citizens are educated and Sanskrit.
(4) Economic equality Some people take economic equality to mean that there is an equal distribution of wealth and property among the citizens. For example – Bryce said that, “Economic equality means that all discrimination of property should be abolished and every man and woman should be given equal share of worldly resources and facilities.” But this notion is illusory, even in socialist and communist ideals there is no such concept. The ideal of socialism is that every person should be hired according to his ability and every person should be provided with salary and other facilities according to his work. Since there are differences in the abilities of people, it is natural for people to differ in their actions. Therefore, he cannot have equal rights in worldly wealth. The ideal of the communists is that every person in the society should be given work according to his ability and the goods of consumption should be provided according to his needs. communism
Definition of equality
Relationship between equality and liberty
Regarding the mutual relation of liberty and equality, the following two mainly. Opinions prevail, which are opposed to each other
- (1) Liberty and equality are opposites,
- (2) Equality complements liberty.
(1) Liberty and equality are opposites – Some scholars are of the opinion that liberty and equality are opposites. The main proponents of this view are Lord Acton and the French writer de Tac Will. Lord Acton has said that “the hope of freedom has become in vain because of the excellent desire for equality.” We can explain this view on the following grounds:
(i) On the basis of the narrow meaning of equality and freedom – If equality means to treat everyone equally, then the statement of Lord Acton is completely true. If the meaning of freedom is that every person can do whatever he wants freely for the ghost of his desires. So it is clear that by treating everyone equally, the freedom of all will be destroyed. No one can act according to his will. If everyone is free in this sense, then the stronger and smarter people will have more power than the other. You will get wealth and fame and if everyone is treated equally, then no one will be able to do anything arbitrary.
Definition of equality
(ii) On the basis of the true meaning of freedom – If the above meaning of equality is accepted and by freedom we mean that the individual gets full opportunity of his natural powers and development, then there will be a special distinction between liberty and equality. People’s powers are different, so if everyone is treated equally, then only individuals can be truly free, for whom this behavior will be unsuitable and everyone else’s freedom will be destroyed. For example, if you put all the children in a Sainik School, then those who have military talent, they will develop and they will be able to become really independent, but for the students who are capable of being a musician, painter or scientist, then this school will prove to be a prison. They will not be able to enjoy freedom in the true sense.
(2) Liberty and equality are mutually complementary – Some scholars are of the opinion that liberty and equality are mutually complementary. We can explain this view as follows
(i) On the basis of the correct definition of liberty and equality – we will be able to understand the mutual relation of liberty and equality only when keep in mind their correct definitions. It is freedom that a person should get the opportunity to develop his innate powers and qualities, and everyone should get equal opportunities, this is equality. In this sense both are complementary to each other. In the absence of equality, individuals cannot enjoy liberty and in the absence of liberty, equality cannot be enjoyed. If some people in the society get more facilities for happiness and development than others, then it is clear that those who have less facilities, they will not be able to develop themselves like the more privileged people, nor will they be able to get the same means of happiness. . The number of well educated persons is very less. Not only are worldly pleasures more available to them, their intellect and character have also developed. On the other hand there are crores of illiterate men and women. Who can say that if these people also got a good education, then even among them the philosophers of the highest order. Artists could not become musicians, scientists or administrators. It is clear that these people are not free in the true sense.
(ii) Violation of freedom by the privileged and privileged persons – more important than this is that the people in the society to whom special rights and facilities are available, they try to sabotage the rights of others by becoming more powerful and influential. In our society, educated people cast their terror and influence on uneducated people and rich people on poor and in real life poor and uneducated people cannot make full use of the rights given by the state. For example – in our country everyone has the right to vote and stand in elections and get government office according to merit, but in practice what is the value of these rights for an uneducated and poor man? As we see that only rich and educated people win in elections and educated people also reach high government posts. Similarly, if some people in a state have the right to vote and stand in the election. If there is a car and the rest of the citizens are deprived of it, then the power of the state will be in the hands of those few privileged persons and they will use it to exploit and oppress others. Therefore, establishing equality in any one area does not work. In relation to personal, political and civil rights, it is necessary to have equality, as well as it is very important to have economic equality. There is political and civic equality in our country, but there is great equality in education, social life and economic field. This is the reason that the two freedom and equality have been provided by the constitution, it has no real value in the life of majority of the people. Therefore, the statement of Prof. Lossky is true that in the absence of equality, no kind of freedom can be established.