definition of right
There are many nature-given powers in man. But some facilities are required for the development of these powers and their use in the interest of society. On the basis of these facilities a person can develop his/her all-round development. But a person can develop himself only by living in the society, outside the society we cannot even imagine it. Now the question is who provides the facilities for the development of the individual. Society provides these facilities to the individual. If the society does not accept any facility or power, then it cannot be kept in the category of rights. But society cannot protect these facilities and powers, because it does not have any binding authority. For this the state is required. The state protects them and implements them. Therefore, rights are those facilities provided by the society and protected by the state, on the basis of which the individual can develop his/her all-round development.
definition of right
The definitions of authority have been given by some scholars as follows:
1. “Rights are those conditions of life without which one cannot ordinarily attain his highest self.” – Laski
2. “Right is a claim which the society accepts and the state imposes” – Bernard Bosanke
3. “The right is the ability to influence the actions of other persons, not by one’s own power, but by the strength of society.” – Holland
4. “Rights are those powers which are necessary for the fulfillment of the functions of man as a moral being.” – Garner
Types of rights
main rights of citizens
Here we will mention the main rights which the citizens of a developing country demand from their state.
(1) Right to life – It is axiomatic that all human rights are related to life. Who will enjoy the rights when there is no life? The spirit of survival is present in all beings only in man. There is a lot of truth in the statement of the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes that – “The instinct of self-defense is the basic instinct of man.” That’s why the right to life is most important. This right means that the state should create such conditions so that the life of the citizen is safe. The State itself or any other person should not do any such act which would endanger his life. No person can kill another, but if someone is killed in self-defense attempts, then it cannot be called a crime. No person can end his life even by committing suicide, because his life belongs to the society. The state has been given the power to impose the death penalty. For the security of the nation, the state can recruit civilians into the army, even if their life ends in war. But it is necessary for the security of the nation.
(2) Right to livelihood – It is necessary to sustain life. That the person should be given an opportunity to earn a living. The citizen who remains idle, it is not only difficult for him to maintain himself, but he also cannot develop his mental and spiritual development. Therefore, in the present era, this principle is accepted that as far as possible from the state, the citizen should be given the opportunity to earn a livelihood according to his interest and ability. This right is given special importance in socialist countries. The fundamental rights of citizens mentioned in the Constitution of Russia include the right to livelihood.
(3) Right to get a fair wage for work – If a citizen does not get a fair salary according to his work, then his right to get work becomes void. In almost all countries of the world, there is a huge disparity in the salary or wages that citizens get. The principle of equal pay for equal work is not prevalent everywhere. Women are usually paid less than men for the same work. Such a system is unfair from the point of view of justice. Socialist states must claim that they get a fair wage for their work.
(4) Right to personal freedom – Just as work is necessary for life, in the same way personal freedom is also necessary to some extent. In fact, no distinction can be made between the right to life and the right to liberty. If a person is given the right to life, but he is not given the right to live as he wishes, then his right to life will become meaningless.
(5) Right to express thoughts – It is the natural quality of man to think about any subject and express his views. Therefore, freedom of thought is very necessary for the development of his life. At the same time, it is also appropriate from the point of view of social welfare that every citizen should get complete freedom to express his views. Some scholars are of the opinion that the state should not deprive its citizens of freedom of thought under any circumstances.
(6) Right to Property – The meaning of this right is that a person should have the freedom to use his property according to his will, destroy it, sell it and donate it or give it to anyone as an inheritance. The right to property is because it creates a feeling of self-reliance and security in a person. He does not have to worry about his future and can be sure to do other important work of life according to his power. The person who does not have wealth, he is constantly surrounded by worries and his character cannot develop.
(7) Right to freedom of worship and conscience – The meaning of this right is that the citizen should have the right to behave according to his religion, to propagate religion, to adopt any form of worship, etc. These rights have been given great importance in the present era. Conscience is the proof, so the state should not interfere in it. But the state can impose restrictions on it in the public interest.
(8) Right to education and culture – Without education being built in the life of an individual, neither a person can develop his mental and spiritual development, and can serve the society properly. It is also not possible for every person that he could manage his own education, the field of knowledge has become so vast and the means of education are so expensive that it is impossible even for the richest of the rich to go to them. Therefore, it is the duty of the opinion both from the point of view of individual development and social welfare to take responsibility for the education of its citizens. Compulsory and free system of elementary education is made in the developing states. Economically backward states cannot properly arrange education for their citizens. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the government to make arrangements for compulsory and free education.
(9) Right to form associations or communities – In the civilized states of the modern era, individuals form communities or associations to fulfill their interests and needs; For example, religious, economic, cultural, educational and recreational communities. Some of these are temporary and many are permanent. These communities are considered essential for the growth and development of life. Therefore it is generally accepted that citizens have the right to freely form such communities. In almost all civilized states, individuals enjoy this right to a greater or lesser degree. But there are limits to this right. No state can permit the organization of such communities, which become so powerful as to challenge its authority or to encroach upon the common rights of the citizens. Therefore, when a community starts acting contrary to the general law of the state, the state imposes a ban on it or dissolves it. All states, especially in relation to secret and revolutionary political parties. Stay alert.
(10) Family Rights – Family is the most amazing and useful invention of man. Therefore, for a happy and balanced life, it is necessary that a person should enjoy this right wherever possible. It includes the right to marriage, the right to perpetuation of the purity of married life, parental rights in relation to the child and the right of succession.
(11) Political Rights – Political rights are of paramount importance in the present era. The reason is that without political rights other rights cannot survive.
Under this right mainly the following four rights are included
(i) Right to Vote
(ii) Right to stand at election
(iii) Right to receive posts as per merit
(iv) Right to oppose the government
12. Right to Equality – The principle of equality is inherent in the concept of rights. The meaning of rights is that equal facilities should be provided to all citizens by the state. All scholars agree that in the absence of the right to equality, the remaining rights have no value. Equality in democratic states is considered to mean only political and legal equality, which means that all citizens are equal before the law, all have the right to vote equally and all can stand for election and hold office according to their qualifications. Can you Socialist thinkers have a statement. That real equality cannot be established in the society only by political equality, therefore it is necessary to establish equality in the social and economic field also. Social equality means that human beings should be considered equal as human beings and there should be no discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, language etc. and everyone should get a respectable place in the society. Economic equality means that citizens should have equal facilities for their economic growth and development, there should be a fair and just distribution of national wealth. To all the people according to the work and according to the work. Only then can the right to economic equality be made practical.
definition of right
Meaning of rights and duties
Relationship of rights and duties
Society is the originator of rights. Society wants duties instead of rights. When the individual performs his duties, then the society is also in a position to provide rights to the individual. That is why there is a close relationship between rights and duties. They cannot be separated from each other. The relationship between rights and duties can be discussed as follows:
definition of right
(1) Fundamental duty of rights – Equal facilities are provided to all citizens on behalf of the society and the state. A person or class in the present democratic era. cannot claim special rights for himself. This implies that we have to pay the price of our rights as a duty. When someone from the society If a special right is demanded, then the condition also remains in that demand that he. Rights we ask not only for ourselves, but for everyone and we others. but will respect their rights and allow them to enjoy them freely. The famous scholar Sijvik has written that – “A little contemplation will cause trouble that if we imagine the rights of a person, then it is inherent in it that others must perform some duties, so that that person So that it becomes clear that rights have a fundamental duty.
definition of right
(2) Basis of rights Duties – Imagination of rights in the absence of duties. cannot be done. Mahatma Gandhi used to say that – “A person should perform his duties, he will get the rights automatically.” According to Gandhiji, duties come first and rights come later. That is, rights arise from duty. We can understand this principle better with an example. In the present era, it is believed that the individual should get the right to get education from the society and the state, but all the citizens will need a lot of money for education. Therefore, citizens do not earn money by working hard and do not increase the funds of the government and society by paying taxes and money, then how can society provide education to all? Therefore, it is clear that the more the citizens of a society by their services and hard work make it prosperous and summoned, the more facilities they can expect from it.
(3) Rights and Duties are two sides of the same coin – Rights and Duties are two sides of the same coin. They cannot be separated from each other. The right of one becomes the duty of the other. I can enjoy my rights only when others perform their duties. Dr. Beniprasad has written that Rights and Duties are two sides of the same coin. If a person sees them from his point of view then they are rights and if he sees this from other point of view then they become duties.” Rights and duties are also complementary to each other. If a person wants to enjoy his rights, but If I do not perform my duties, then nobody’s rights can be protected in the society. For example, I have the right to express my views, but it is the duty of others not to become a hindrance in expressing my views, only then I can enjoy my said right. definition of right
(4) Right of the individual is his duty towards the society – the rights have been given to the individual by the society. Society has given rights to the individual so that by using them he can develop himself and collectively contribute to the progress of the society. Along with this, it is the duty of the person that the person should exercise the rights only for the above purpose. It is his duty not to do any such work which causes harm to the society. If he harms any person, institution or society in exercising any right, then society and state can impose restrictions on that right of the individual. This proves that whatever rights a person has, they make sense of the duties towards the society. If a person does not perform the duties, then he will not be able to use the rights. Jack, a scholar, says – “Every citizen should remember this thing that above all rights he has the right to perform his duties.”definition of right
It is clear from the above discussion that there is a close relationship between rights and duties. The welfare of the society is also in this that individuals respect each other’s rights. That is, along with the enjoyment of rights, they also perform duties. L. T. Hobhouse says- “Rights and duties are the conditions of social welfare. Every member of society has a dual relationship with this welfare. He has a common in it, these are his rights. He has to contribute to this, it is his duty.” ” .