Political science definition -definition of political science-Political theory

definition of political science

traditional definitions

(1) According to the famous scholar Blundashli, “Political science is that science which is concerned with the state and which tries to understand the basic conditions of the state, its elemental nature, its various forms of expression and its development.”

(2) The German scholar Gerais states that “Political science discusses what forms of the state as an institution of power can be and that. Its overall relations, its origin, its embodiment (land and inhabitants). ), its purpose, its moral importance, its economic problems, its life circumstances, its economic aspects and objectives.

(3) Garner writes, “In short, political science begins with the state and ends in the state itself.”

It is clear that in these definitions, the state itself has been given more importance and the government is not mentioned.

(4) According to the English scholar Seeley, “Government is practiced under political science in the same way as money in economics, life in zoology, numbers in algebra and space and distance in linearity.”

The word state does not appear in this definition.

(5) According to the French scholar Paul Jeanne, “Political science is that part of social science which examines the foundations of the state and the principles of governance.”

(6) Gilchrist writes, “The state and government are studied under political science.”

(7) Similarly, Gatil says, “Political science can be called the science of the state. The main subjects of its study are the state, government and law.”

field of political science

When we ask what is the field of Political Science, what do we have to do with it. It means what things are studied under this discipline. That is, what is its subject matter. By the way, estimate its area from the definition itself. Nevertheless, it is necessary to discuss it in detail. Forward about this. Topic is included.

I. Political theory

(1) Political Theory – The most important subject of political science is political theory. Under this, the origin, development, organization, nature, objectives, functions etc. of the state are studied critically. It is mainly concerned with the goals, institutions and processes of political life. Political theory does not study the specific facts of the political spectrum, but on the basis of those facts, an attempt is made to determine the general. The author named Koker wrote at one place, when we study political government, its forms and activities not in the form of mere facts, but keeping in mind the constant needs, desires and opinions of human beings, then we call the same political theory.  

(2) History of political thought – Political theory not only includes not only political theory and the idea of ​​ideal society, but also the history of political thought has an important place. There have been many thinkers in different countries of the world since ancient times, who have discussed the basic qualities, elements, objectives, organization and problems of the state from their own point of view. Although the thoughts of all these philosophers were deeply influenced by the circumstances of their time and their aim was to solve contemporary problems, yet we find elements of permanent value in their thinking. Therefore, the study of his thinking is essential for the student of Political Science. His thoughts still help us a lot in understanding the real nature of the state and the direction of its development. From this point of view the history of western political thought is of paramount importance. We have to recognize that the philosophical originality, depth and breadth that is seen in the political thought of the West will not be found in the political philosophy of any other country. Therefore, from Socrates and Plato to Laski and Bertrand Russell, the study of political thought is very useful for a student of political science. Similarly, Manu, Bhishma and Kautilya in ancient India, Vipin Chandrapal, Arvind Ghosh and Mahatma Gandhi in modern era, Confucius in ancient China and Mao-Tse-Tung in modern China etc. Without studying all these ideas, there will be no essence in the study of Political Science.

II. political institutions

(1) Contrary to the constitution-political theory, political institutions are concerned with the real forms and facts of political life. The most important of these is the Constitution. Constitution is called the rule by which the structure and functioning of the government of a state etc. is determined. What is the process of making laws in a state, what are the rules for implementing the laws, how is the judicial system, what is the mutual relationship between different organs of the government, what is the relationship of the government with the citizens and what are their rights and duties, Other things are included in the constitution. The study of constitutions of different countries of the world is an important part of political science.

(2) National Government – In the present era, there are often three levels of government or administration – national, regional and local. National government is that which manages the affairs related to the whole nation. What are the main departments of a government, how they are organized, public officers are appointed, promoted, removed, etc., how they do their work, what are the merits and demerits in their functioning, etc. come under the national government. The study of different countries is an important subject of political science.

(3) Territorial and Local Government – Nowadays the work of governance has become so elaborate and complicated that the national government itself does not manage the entire affairs of the country – especially in large states. Therefore, for the convenience of governance, the state is divided into provinces. These states had their own governments. Manages regional affairs. Their own organization or functioning, for example, India is divided into many states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal etc. They have their own governments. The study of all these is also done under political institutions today.

(4) Comparative Political Institutions- Different states have their own political institutions. It is necessary to study them all separately. In addition to donation, it is also necessary to do their comparative study. This allows people to benefit from one’s experience. Some experiments related to governance are being done in one country, other countries can also learn something from their successes and failures. Therefore, the subject is also an important part of political science.

III. Political parties, groups and public opinion

(1) Political Parties- Almost in every state, especially in democratic states, political parties have an important place. People of similar political, economic, social views and ideals form organizations to achieve their objectives and try to establish their authority over the government machinery. The position, objectives of these parties. It is difficult to get the right knowledge about the governance of a country without understanding the working method etc. In some countries, parties would have had such a close relationship with the government structure. The government cannot function without them. Therefore, their study is also necessary for the student of Political Science.

(2) Groups and Communities – Apart from political parties, there are many organized groups and communities in every country who try to influence politics directly and indirectly to fulfill and protect their specific interests. Sometimes even within political parties, many factions and groups are formed. It is also necessary to study all these.

(3) Participation of citizens in government and administration – study of this matter. It is also important and interesting that the citizens are interested in the politics of their country, whether they try to participate in it consciously and actively, whether they have adequate opportunities and facilities to participate or not and whether they are interested in politics. To what extent do they affect?

definition of political science

(4) Lokmat – of books, magazines, radio and traffic in the present era. Due to the convenience it has become easy for the people to propagate their views and opinions. Therefore, the majority of the people have also started thinking and contemplating on political subjects. As a result, different sections of the public subvert their opinion on every subject. This is simply called Lokmat. Nowadays no one can run without government. This is not true in the case of democratic states. Autocratic rulers also have to take care of public opinion. Therefore, it is necessary for the student of politics to study public opinion, the means and methods of its formation.

definition of political science

1. International Politics – In the present era, the importance of mutual relations of states has increased more, neither science nor distance and by conquering time, the nations of the world have established such close relations that it is impossible for any nation to be completely independent. The policy and actions of one state have a better or worse effect on other states than necessary. Therefore, it is very important for the student of Meteorology to understand the mutual relations of states. What is the foreign policy of different states, who are its friends and who are enemies, what measures do they take to protect themselves, what are their mutual, commercial, cultural and diplomatic relations. All these things come under international relations. The main objective of this type of study is how to improve the mutual relations of states, how to create harmony, friendship and pad yoga among them so that the whole human race can live a life of peace and prosperity.

definition of political science

(2) International Law – Although all the states of the world are considered sovereign, no state is under any other institution or law and order, itself because it is considered to be the supreme lawmaker. Yet in the past centuries, with the permission and cooperation of the states, a system of laws has been established, on the basis of which much of the relations between the states are regulated and governed. This system is called International Law. The old League of Nations, which was established after the First World War and the United Nations, which was established after the Second World War, both these institutions have contributed a lot in the development of international law. On the basis of this method, an International Court of Justice has also been established long ago to settle the mutual disputes of the states. The study of this method is also done under political science. However, like international relations and diplomacy, that too is a separate subject.

definition of political science

(3) International Organization and Administration – World War I caused a lot of damage to the world and deeply hurt human civilization. Frightened by this, the world’s leading politicians established an international organization called the League of Nations. The purpose of this organization was to stop the war and to settle the disputes of the nations peacefully, but this organization did not succeed and the Second World War broke out, which proved to be more devastating than the first. Therefore, after that the organization named United Nations was established. Its purpose is the same as the previous League of Nations. Under it there are many important institutions which try to settle international disputes and try to establish close economic and cultural relations between nations and increase friendship between them. The study of all these organizations and institutions is also done under political science. It is clear from the above analysis that political science has become a very broad subject in the present period and many such subjects have been included under it, which many scholars are ready to give the form of independent disciplines.

definition of political science

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definition of political science

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