Meaning and definitions of democracy
Democracy definition simple
This word is made up of Greek words – ‘Demos’ and ‘Kresia’, the first word means ‘people’ and the second ‘power or power’. Like this. It literally means ‘government of the people’. Therefore, the democratic system of governance is that form of government in which the entire power of governance is vested in the people.
Major Definitions of Democracy
(1) According to Dicey, “Democracy is that form of government in which the ruling class constitutes a relatively large part of the whole nation.”
(2) According to Giddings, “Democracy is not only a form of government, but it is also a form of state and society or a combination of all three.”
(3) According to Bryce, “Since the time of Herodotus, the word democracy has been used to denote a form of governance in which the power of governance is not vested in a particular class or classes, but in the members of society. “
(4) According to Seeley, “Democracy is that system of government in which everyone participates in the work of governance.”
(5) According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is the government in which the government is of the people, for the people and by the people.”
(6) According to Dr. Beniprasad, “Democracy is a principle of subsistence. In this society one person cannot be made an instrument for the happiness of another.”
(7) According to Gatil, “It is that form of government in which the people have the right to participate in the exercise of sovereign power.”
Types of democracy
Characteristics of a democratic system
Following are the main features of a democratic government system:
(1) Helpful in the development of the individual – In a democratic government system, every citizen gets an opportunity to work according to his ability and ability, so in this system of governance, citizens get good knowledge of developing their personality.
(2) Security by revolution – In democratic governance system, all the work of governance is done in the hands of the people, so there is less chance of dissatisfaction arising among the people, hence there is no fear of revolution in democratic governance system. In this regard, according to Gilchrist, “Popular government is the rule of public consent. Therefore it cannot be revolutionary in nature.”
(3) System of political education – In a democratic system of governance, citizens have the freedom to participate in the work of governance, so in this system of governance, all citizens get training in political work. In this regard, according to Bern, governance is the means of education and the best education is self-education. Therefore most. Governance is self-government, which is called democracy.” Gatil has described democracy as ‘the school of education of citizenship’.
(4) Governance fostering equality – In a democratic government system, all citizens are considered equal and all are treated equally. No work is done keeping in mind the color, caste, religion and gender etc. In this system the principle of equality of opportunity is followed by eliminating class privilege. That is why intellectual development of citizens is possible only in a democratic system of governance. In this regard, according to Lord Bryce, “By the attainment of political rights, the value of the personality of man increases and reaches that level of sense of duty which is followed by the attainment of his political rights.”
(5) Based on the general will-democratic system of governance lays special emphasis on the will of the people. In this system of governance, the work of governance is carried out according to the general will. Therefore, in a democratic government, the interests of all the people are protected without taking care of the interests of any particular class.
(6) Secularism is emphasized in the democratic governance system to protect the interests of the common man and efficient governance. In this system of governance, neither any special encouragement nor any kind of opposition is given to the interests of any particular religion or religion, but everyone is treated equally and everyone is given equal facilities. Governance is based on the principle of accountability. Therefore, the democratic system of governance protects the interests of the common man. In this regard, Garner has clearly written that “Due to public election, public control, public accountability, there is a possibility of assurance of more smoothness in this system than any other system of governance.”
meaning of democracy
(7) Protection of personal freedom – In a democratic system of governance, all citizens get equal opportunity to participate in the work of governance. Therefore, in this system of governance, no person depends on the will of anyone else. Everyone’s personal liberty is protected. Fundamental rights are provided to all citizens equally. Every person can follow the religion according to the idea, can hold meetings and seminars etc. and can participate in the organizations. In this way, this system of governance protects the personal freedom of everyone.
meaning of democracy
Features of democracy
Demerits of Democratic Governance
The following major defects are found in the democratic system of governance –
(1) Recognition to disqualified persons – Equal rights are provided to all qualified and unqualified persons in the democratic system of governance. Therefore, in this rule of law, even the disqualified persons get full right to participate in the political process. Some scholars have called the democratic government system the rule of incompetent or stupid people. According to Lackey, “It is the government of the poorest, the ignorant and the most unfit people. When democracy reaches its perverted system, it turns into Mobocracy. In this system, importance is given to numbers rather than merit.” Facts can point to the fact that the number of unqualified or poor people is more in the society than qualified people. Gradually, the election process starts on the basis of many elements like caste, sect, language etc. away from the principles and system. Corrupt government becomes a model. On this basis, Fangut has called it ‘ignorant rule’ and G Wells has called it ‘the rule of the mindless and ignorant’. Therefore scholars have called the rule of the mother of the people. This is in other words. It can also be denoted as “Democracy is the principle of incompetence”.
meaning of democracy
(2) Competition of political parties – In the democratic system of governance, different political parties are formed for different political objectives. Therefore, in a democracy, political parties struggle for the fulfillment of their objectives and expect public interest.
(3) Time and Expensive Governance System – In a democratic government system, most of the posts are appointed by election. There is a lot of wastage of money in electoral work, so the democratic system of governance is a costly system. There is also wastage of time in this system. According to Barker, “Democracy by its very nature is not conducive to quick decisions.”
(4) Obstacles in the development of civilization and culture – In the democratic system of governance, uneducated people are also given equal rights as educated people. Illiterate people are not able to develop civilization and culture, so the development of civilization and culture gets blocked in a democracy. According to Henryman, “In a democracy, the system of adult franchise etc. hinders the development of civilization and culture”. .
(5) The impracticality of the principles – in the democratic system of governance, the unqualified persons are also given the same rights as the capable persons in the administration. This system of governance is based on the empty imagination of equality, freedom and universal fraternity, so its principles cannot be given practical form. In this regard, the famous scholar Burke has expressed the opinion that “Democracy is a figment of the imagination. By following its principles, the work of any government cannot be run smoothly.” meaning of democracy
(6) Indifference to virtues – In the democratic system, special emphasis is given on numbers or majority and virtuous persons are neglected. In such a situation, the “democratic system of government can be called the government of the poor and ignorant people only.” meaning of democracy