Meaning of the Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763)
The Seven Years’ War began with the invasion of Saxony by King Frederick of Prussia in August 1756. Saxony was under the Austrian Empire. Although the ruler of Saxony, Augustus III, bravely faced the Prussian army. Frederick was victorious and took control of Saxony.
In response to this invasion of Prussia, Austria, France and Russia simultaneously attacked it. When surrounded by enemy forces, Frederick showed extraordinary courage and patience. He led the army of Prussia successfully and kept its morale up. Although the Prussian army had to fight fiercely with the enemy forces on several fronts at once, Frederick, with his skillful strategy and able leadership, defeated France first and then Austria. These successes boosted the morale of the administration.
But it was becoming difficult for Prussia to defeat Russia. Although Prussia defeated Russian troops in the Battle of Jorndorf in 1758 AD, the Battle of Kurnsdorf in 1759 ruined Prussia’s success. In this war, the Russian army had defeated the Prussian soldiers, but in 1762, when Peter III sat on the throne of Russia, Russia’s aggression towards Prussia began to decrease. This was because Peter III was a supporter of Frederick. Although Peter III died early, his wife and heir to the Russian throne, Catherine II, followed Peter’s policy towards Prussia. Soon Catherine made a treaty with Peter and separated Russia from the Seven Years’ War. As a result, Austria was left alone. Austria began to weaken before the power of Prussia. Eventually Austria was forced to propose a treaty with Prussia. With this, a treaty was signed between France and England.
Treaty of Hubertsburg (1763 AD)
In February 1763 AD, the Treaty of Hubertsburg was concluded between Austria and Prussia. According to the terms of the treaty, the borders of Austria and expansion were considered pre-war. Austria confirmed Prussia’s authority over Silesia. Prashane agreed to relinquish possession of Saxony. Augustus III was accepted as the ruler of Saxony. Frederick promised Arch-Duke Joseph of Prussia’s support in his election as Emperor of Austria.
Treaty of Paris (1763 AD)
At the end of the Seven Years’ War, the Treaty of Paris was signed between England and France in 1763 AD. England received many French colonies under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Although the British in India returned the conquered territories of France to France, France fell out of the rivalry for the establishment of the empire. England became a great colonial and trading power.
cause to the Seven Years War
cause to the Seven Years’ War (from 1705 AD to 1763 AD)
Following were the main causes of the Seven Years’ War
1. Ambition of Meria Thirija
In the final result of the Austrian succession, Maria Thirija had to hand over the territory of Silesia to Prussia, which remained a question of prestige for her. That is why she wanted to suppress his power. Prussia was also not ready to give up its authority over Silesia. Thus both Austria and Prussia had a feeling of enmity towards each other.
2. Anglo-French Colonial Conflict
Anglo-French Colonial Conflict. He also contributed indirectly to the Seven Years’ War. From 1740 AD to 1748 AD, Anglo and. The Carnatic wars had begun in India between the French. The situation was the same in America as well. Competition between the two countries was resumed in 1754 AD.
3. Coalition (Diplomatic Revolution)
European states were grouping among themselves to fulfill their own interests, which became the reason for the Seven Year War. Maria Thiriza agreed with Russia and France through the Treaty of Versailles that Austria would remain neutral if there was a war between England and France. France also promised to attack Austria, giving French aid in case of Prussian invasion of Austria. In this situation, where France and Austria united, the ancient friendship of England and Austria came to an end. Russia’s ruler Elizabeth accepted this treaty in 1757 AD.
4. Personal reasons
Maria Thiriza, Elizabeth and girlfriend Madame Pompadou were very angry with Frederick the Great’s statements from time to time, so their mutual rivalry also added fuel to the fire.
5. Immediate Cause
The immediate cause of the Seven Years’ War was to invade Saxony in August 1757 AD without declaring war by Prussia and take over it. Russia and Sweden were terrified by these activities of Frederick and soon fierce war started on both sides.
Consequences of the Seven Years’ War
The primacy of Prussia became clear throughout Europe that North Germany became under Prussia. Austria’s Hapsburg dynasty suffered a severe blow to its reputation. To no avail. He suffered heavy losses in the war and became very weak militarily and financially. Forced to make a treaty with that England. Therefore, now England has a monopoly in the sea. It is noteworthy that in this war, Prussia increased the hostility of Austria. Therefore, in the end, there was a war again between the two countries on the question of the succession of Baberia.