American War of Independence American War of Independence summary

American War of Independence

 The American Revolution was, in fact, caused by fundamental differences between the colonies and the mother state. This struggle was not only for economic interests but was against the social and political system. After 1763 AD, the revolution was born due to the rigid trading system and colonial policy adopted by Britain. It was against the British policies by the American colonies to maintain their independence, freedom in practice and their independence. It is also worth noting that there was considerable variation among the colonists and many of them had no complaints with Britain, but circumstances forced them to unite. Although the British government did not give any special support and assistance in the establishment of these colonies, it had established its suzerainty over them. The reason for this was probably that most of the people living in these colonies were of English caste. The British practice in the colonies and the announcements issued by Britain from time to time became the reason for the American Revolution. The main reasons for this are as follows –

(1) The character of the people living in the colonies and the lack of love for England

the same blood was flowing among the people of America, which was flowing in the people who settled in Britain. If the people of Britain could be free-loving, then the British who settled in America were also supporters of independence. The British, who had fled from Britain and settled in America, had come to America after getting angry with Britain for some reason or the other. Some were oppressed by the religious policy of the King of England and settled in America. Among them were Puritans, Anglicans, Catholics etc. The government of England had driven the criminals of their country out of America, even in their mind there was no love for England. The number of people who settled in America from other countries of Europe was 40 percent of the total population, they completely opposed England. There was a sense of equality in the American colonies, while in England, class distinctions still existed and society was dominated by the elite. According to the historian Devlian, “The society of England was old, complex and artificial, while that of America was new, simple and immature.” Thus there was a great difference in the character of the people who settled in America. They could not compromise with the Government of England at any cost.

(2) Development of Intellectual Consciousness

Intellectual consciousness was also developing very rapidly in the American colonies which influenced the revolution. The people who settled in America were originally of English descent. In them also there was a feeling of political freedom of a common Englishman. The first charter of the Virginia settlement stated that the people who settled there would get all the freedoms and facilities that the people living in England had. That is why this struggle was fought by the Americans for the protection of the fundamental right of ‘an ordinary Englishman’. According to Professor Pollard, the American Revolution (1776) was the second part of the British Revolution (1688). There was rapid awareness in the local assemblies and debates on political issues were intensifying. American philosopher James Otis, while attacking British policies, said in 1776 AD, “In history from the beginning to the present day, all kings have been oppressive, this does not make oppression a right.”

Education, journalism and thinkers had made a special contribution in the development of intellectual consciousness. Pennsylvania was a leader in education. In 1636, Harvard College was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1693 AD, William and Mary College in Virginia became a famous center of education. All kinds of education were also arranged in these colleges, classes were held at night for the workers, there was provision for the education of fine arts for the women. Benjamin Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society, a thought center. The first printing press was established in the last years of the seventeenth century in the city of Cambridge, America. In 1704 AD, the first newspaper ‘Boston Newsletter’ was published in Boston. In 1719 AD ‘American Capricorn’ and in 1725 AD ‘New York Gazette’ was published. Education and journalism helped in inculcating the feeling of nationalism. Political books such as Stephen Hopkins’ The Rights of Colonists were published in 1765. Thomas Paine instilled the feeling of patriotism in the hearts of people through his famous book ‘Commonsense’. The ideas of French philosophers – Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau etc. had also had an impact on America’s freedom struggle.

(3) Faulty Governance –

The type of governance that England had maintained with the colonies, it is called old colonial. This meant that the American colonies were only for the benefit of the mother-country. Inspired by this spirit, every activity of the colonies was controlled. The King and Parliament of England exercised various types of legal control over the American colonies. The governor for these colonies was appointed by the king and the governor had the privilege to annul any law passed by the local legislature. The members of the legislature were elected by the people. The governor also had control over foreign policy, land policy and commercial policy. Due to this there was a conflict between the legislature and the governor. Governors were appointed by the King of England, but their salaries and allowances were given by the local societies. There used to be a situation when the colonies refused to pay the salaries of the governors. This situation seemed bad to the British government because it not only had to defame the governors, but it also imposed restrictions on the exercise of powers. In fact this colonial system did not work. Heavy-looking Acts could not be strictly enforced. There was a blatant violation of shipping and smuggling was at its peak, and when attempts were made to strictly enforce the laws, the result was an American rebellion.

(4) Trade control of England –

England wanted to exploit the colonies more and more economically, for which the Americans were not ready. The Government of England passed such laws related to trade which would benefit England. In 1624, the government of James banned all foreign ships used for the export of tobacco to Virginia. In 1651 AD, an act was passed by the Government of England that all English settlements located in America could be imported and exported only by ships built in England or built in the colonies. Another law declared that ships going to the American colonies should now be owned by England or the concerned colony. Also, 75 percent of the employees working on the ship should be the subjects of the King of England. By a law the trade of sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, ginger etc. was reserved between England and the colonies.

In 1666 AD, the foreign trade law was applied to the American colonies, according to which everything exported from America would first go to an English port and then somewhere else. Similarly, the system was also for imported goods. According to another law of 1673 AD, import-export going from one American colony to another was considered as foreign trade and customs duty was received. Controls were also imposed on the industries of the colonies by England. In 1689 AD, the export of woolen goods from America was given by law. In 1719 AD, it was said in the General Assembly that due to the developed activities of construction etc. in America, its dependence on England is decreasing, so the industries of America should be discouraged. As a result, in 1732 AD, the export of both ready-made and semi-finished guns was banned. The Americans were denied the freedom to trade with the French West Indies. According to the Iron Act in 1750 AD, Americans were forbidden to set up iron factories.

All the above laws were not vigorously opposed as they were not strictly followed. The British government did not have enough officers to conduct door-to-door surveillance. When these laws were strictly followed during the reign of George III, the opposition started by the colonies.

(5) Social reasons –

The difference between America and England also helped in increasing the mutual differences of both. Hard work, courage and adversity to settle in America. There was a need to be tolerated whereas the social status of England was derived from birth, custom, education etc. A working person in America could become wealthy in no time and could get the top position in the society whereas in England it was difficult to become rich even after working hard and even if a person became rich then he could be included in the high society. Instead, he was looked upon with the eyes of hatred. The paternal aristocracy had influence in the society of England.

There were two types of Americans participating in the American freedom struggle. One who was against the commerce of England and was few in number, the other who were full of democratic sentiments and were young entrepreneurs and workers. This second class was against all kinds of aristocracy. America’s zeitgeist or aristocracy remained separate from the revolution, because their society corresponded to the English society. Often lawyers, traders, smugglers, teachers etc. took part in this struggle openly.

American War of Independence

(6) Effect of Seven Years War

– Seven Years War fought between France and England 11756-1763) proved to be very important for America. War between France and England in India. Fought in Europe and America. During this war, the Americans looted the supplies for the British army and sold them to the French. This work was termed as ‘trading from the enemy’ in the English definition. During the war, the colonies developed their industries a lot. A governor of New York predicted that “Once the Americans were able to provide themselves with the cloth they needed, they would not accept the presence of England at all. Continuing efforts were made to obtain this advantage that ended after the war.”

Second, there were French colonies in Canada. The American people were always afraid that France would not attack them and establish their hegemony, due to this they did not openly oppose England, but France was defeated by England in the Seven Years’ War and Canada was also England took possession. As soon as the French crisis ended, the American people started opposing England to protect their interests.

American War of Independence

Boston Tea Party and the Beginning of the Freedom Struggle –

The atmosphere of most opposition in America was seen in Boston, the port of Massachusetts. There was a large population of Puritans here. On December 16, 1773, under the leadership of Samuel Adams, some Americans disguised as porters and boarded the ships of the East India Company stationed in the Boston port and threw 340 tea boxes into the sea. This event is called the ‘Baston Tea Party’ in American history. M. A. Schlesinger says that “this incident had less to do with the agitating leaders and more with the tea smuggler John Brown.”

American War of Independence

Policy of repression –

George III and Lord North made this event a challenge for themselves, the local administration was dissolved. The Boston port was closed, the Massachusetts gutter was closed, English soldiers were allowed to enter people’s homes. The ongoing cases in the court were transferred to England. Not only Americans but some politicians in England also called the above laws unfair.

American War of Independence

Continental Conference –

To oppose the policy of repression to England – a conference of colonies was called on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia. It was attended by representatives of all the colonies except In this conference, a resolution was passed to negotiate with the British, but George III did not consider it appropriate with the rebels. So he decided to go to war with America.

American War of Independence

First confrontation

April 19, 1775 AD. There was a conflict between the soldiers and the volunteers. Many soldiers and Samares went in this struggle at a place called Lekisgatan.

The second conference took place on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia in the Second Continental. John Hankunk, a wealthy Boston businessman, presided over the conference. George Washing was made the US Army Chief. It was also decided that weapons should be used for the defense of freedom.

American War of Independence

Declaration of Independence

American leaders understood that England could not be defeated without veto help. Foreign aid was only possible when Dhoji declared the independence of 13 colonies from England on July 4, 1776. The declaration went, “We, the representatives of America, in the name of the citizens of all the colonies, request the Survey Judge of the World that we are now residents of the Free State.”

American War of Independence

Battle of Bunkers Hill –

Southern colonies fired their governors and joined it. The colonies were defeated at the Battle of Bunkers Hill in Boston.

The Battle of Brooklyn – George Washington had limited resources but great enthusiasm. He had to keep going back. New Jersey, New York and Philadelphia also had to retreat.

American War of Independence

Battle of Sashtoga (1777) –

In October, 1777, George Washington surrounded the British General Bangain at a place called Saratoga and had to lay down his arms. This defeat to the British encouraged the European countries like France, Spain etc. to wage war against the British. France was constantly taking an interest in this war. He wanted to take revenge on Britain for his defeat in the Seven Years’ War. As a result, on February 6, 1778, an agreement was reached between France and the American colonies, according to which it was decided that no one would negotiate peace with England separately. Until the American colonies are completely independent, the war will continue. In 1778, France entered the war on the side of America. Spain in 1779 AD and Holland in 1780 AD also declared war against England. The war map had turned. England was losing everywhere. Finally, on October 19, 1981 AD, the English army chief, Lord Cornwallis, surrendered by laying arms in Yorkton. In the naval war, France and Spain fought against England. In 1783 AD, the Treaty of Paris ended the war and the American War of Independence came to an end.

Results of America’s War of Independence

The event of America’s freedom struggle was not only an important event in the history of America and England in the history of the world, after a long struggle America was able to become a nation, according to historian Green, America’s freedom struggle had any effect on the politics of England. Yes, it was a very important event in world history. The independence of the American colony gave the basis to the notion of the thinkers. America’s freedom struggle was an important in the progress of modern man. America’s freedom struggle has an impact or importance.

end of absolute monarchy

America’s free war made a fatal attack on the monopoly of the autocratic monarchy and oligarchy based on divine authority, this event ended the personal rule of George III and in his place the ministerial system and party rule started. imposed

Establishment of new colonies by England

England lost all 13 colonies located in America from the hands, due to which its trading reputation suffered a severe blow, for the protection of its business interests, it had to find new colonies, in this direction, she took the initiative by getting colonies in Australia and New Zealand.

Changes in the traditional colonial policy of England

Britain’s colonies spread around the world were the basis of its economy, if colonies like America kept coming out of its hands, then its economy would collapse, to avoid this situation, he changed his old special system, he was dogmatic and autocratic with the colonies Decided to adopt a sympathetic and reform policy of renunciation. Now he had realized that the colonies could not fulfill the interests of England alone, so he decided to adopt the policy of cooperation and self-government.

American War of Independence

declaration of human freedom

Significance of the American Revolution The Declaration of Independence before the Revolution was centered on July 4, 1776, not only of the declaration of a nation’s civil liberties, but also the role of political philosophy and revolutionary ideas in the history of 19th century Europe. The French Revolution of 1789 The foundation stone of this was in this declaration, in 1868, on the basis of the manifestos of nationalist movements in countries such as Ireland, Finland, Italy, Germany, etc., it was this declaration that every human being in the world is equal and equal.

American War of Independence

The rise of democratic and constitutional authority

The bloodless state revolution of England had taken a step in the direction, its further development took place in America’s freedom struggle. It has become the first country of the era, it taught that the real source of power is the people and the rulers are its servants.

American War of Independence

rise of federal system

America’s revolution started the federal system, gave the form of states to the colonies based in America and by combining them a federal government was formed, America was followed by other countries as well.

American War of Independence

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American War of Independence

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